Violet Pinwill’s carvings at Truro Cathedral

Michael G Swift and Mark S Evans

A version of this article will be published in by Truro Cathedral as Truro Cathedral monograph No 7.

Background history of the Violet Pinwill studio

Figure 010. Violet Pinwill.

Violet Pinwill (Figure 010) was the fifth of seven daughters of the Revd Edmund Pinwill, who became rector of Ermington in Devon in . The church’s woodwork was in dire need of restoration and Mrs Pinwill persuaded the woodcarvers to teach her daughters the craft. Violet and her sisters Mary and Ethel worked first on the construction of the pulpit. Subsequently they decided to form their own business of restoring and creating woodwork in Devon and Cornwall under the name of Rashleigh, Pinwill and Company, moving to Plymouth in . When her sisters left the business, Violet managed the firm herself, recruiting and supervising additional carvers, as well as teaching the craft at Plymouth Technical College. Originally specialising in carvings of animals, flowers, fruits and vegetables, she moved on to the representation of religious figures. She died in aged 83 years and her work, catalogued by Helen Wilson, is to be found in over 100 churches.

Figure 020. Violet Pinwill’s studio.

Her most well-known contributions to the fixtures and fittings of Truro Cathedral are the thirty-two figurative carvings in the quire stalls, but the studio was responsible for a wide range of work over several decades. Many Pinwill carvings were installed during the episcopate of Walter Frere, the seventh Bishop of Truro (). At this time the Bishop was also the Dean of Truro.

Sadly the dating of her work for Truro is incomplete so, rather than a chronology, this survey has been grouped under liturgical carvings, decorative carvings, and a final category where modifications were made to existing carved woodwork.

Part 1: Liturgical carvings

This grouping includes all of the Truro Pinwill carvings that serve a liturgical purpose.

Chapel of St Samson and St Boniface

Figure 032. The reredos installed in the Chapel of St Samson and St Boniface. The figures were re-coloured and gilded, possibly at the same time as the Quire statues, after 1945.

Figure 033. The figures in the reredos the Chapel of St Samson and St Boniface: Saints Paul, Boniface, Samson and the Truro missionary Henry Martyn.

Figure of St Paul in the reredos. Violet Pinwill’s original sketch of St Paul.

Figure 040. St Paul holding a very large sword, and Violet Pinwill’s original sketch.

Figure 042. St Boniface, with his right hand resting on an axe.

Figure 044. St Samson, holding a model of a church, presumably the parish church of St Samson at Golant.

Figure 046. Henry Martyn.

One of Bishop Frere’s innovations was the creation of the Chapel of St Samson and St Boniface from the old Baptistry vestibule. The Pinwill studio made the reredos (Figure 032) for the new chapel and it was installed in .1 The four statues on the reredos depict Saints Paul, Boniface, Samson and the Truro missionary Henry Martyn. This iconography is based on the Master Scheme drawn up by Bishop Benson and Canon Mason in the early , in which the theme for the imagery of the whole Baptistry area was Christian Mission by using the Gospels, the Cornish saints and modern examples.2 St Paul is shown holding a very large sword, and the original sketch (Figure 040) is still available.3 Samson is holding the model of a church, presumably the parish church of St Samson at Golant. Boniface’s attribute is an axe, and in the adjacent nave window to the Baptistry, dedicated to William Collins, Bishop of Gibraltar and donated by Canon Mason, the first Canon Missioner, St Boniface is depicted felling the pagan oak tree. The final statue is of Henry Martyn, the early nineteenth century missionary to India and Persia. He was born in Truro and his life is shown in the Baptistry windows.

Chapel of St Monica

Figure 050. The rood group before installation.

Figure 055. IN · PIAM · MEMORIAM WINFRIDI · EPISCOPI TRURONENSIS · QUINTI WALTERUS · SEPTIMUS DD · AD · ⅯⅭⅯⅩⅩⅩⅢ (In loving memory of Winfrid fifth Bishop of Truro, Walter the seventh [bishop] gave [this memorial] in the year of our Lord ).

The rood group on the altar in the Chapel of St Monica given by Walter Frere, the seventh bishop of Truro, in memory of Winfrid Burrows, the fifth bishop.

The carving of the rood group (Figures 050 and 055) of St John, Crucifixion and the Blessed Virgin Mary was inserted in . The base of the two individual figures has the signature V. Pinwill and that of the Crucifixion CARVER PLYMOUTH. It would appear that she rarely signed the studio’s work, so this group is of special interest. Walter Frere was the donor of this group of carvings in memory of his predecessor, the fifth Bishop of Truro, Winfrid Burrows.4

Chapel of All Saints

Sanctuary table, Chapel of All Saints Angels on sanctuary table, Chapel of All Saints

Figure 060. IN LOVING MEMORY OF EDWARD FRANCIS TAYLOR HON CANON OF THIS CATHEDRAL AND FOR 15 YEARS DIOSCESCAN [sic] INSPECTOR OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE DIED AGED 84 YEARS R.I.P.

The sanctuary table in the Chapel of All Saints.

The sanctuary table (Figure 060) in the Chapel of All Saints was presented in the following year, . It was designed by Frank Loughborough Pearson, the architect who completed his father’s design for Truro Cathedral.5 The table is dedicated to Edward Francis Taylor, who was the Diocesan Inspector of Religious Knowledge.6

Jesus Chapel

Left-hand communion rail, Jesus Chapel. Oblique view of left-hand communion rail, Jesus Chapel.

Figure 110. IN LOVING MEMORY OF JOHN RUNDLE CORNISH BISHOP OF ST. GERMANS WHO DIED .

The communion rails in the Jesus Chapel.

The communion rails (Figure 110) in the Jesus Chapel were installed in . They are dedicated to John Rundle Cornish, Bishop of St Germans, and were given by his son and daughter.7

Part 2: Decorative Carvings

This grouping includes all the Pinwill carvings that were intended to have a primarily a decorative function rather than a part in liturgy and worship, although the war memorial is a focal point of the British Legion service on Remembrance Sunday.

South Nave aisle

Figure 120. FOR · FREEDOM · AND · MERCY · AND · TRUTH.

TRUE LOVE BY LIFE—TRUE LOVE BY DEATH IS TRIED
LIVE YE FOR ENGLAND—WE FOR ENGLAND DIED

AD MAJ · DEI GLORIAM ET IN P · M · IOHAN · CL · DAUBUZ A · M· HUJUS COMITAT · MAGISTRS VICELEG INTER FUNDATRES HUJUSCE ECCLESIÆ & CURA & BENEVOLTIA CONSPICUI, QUI OBT IN XTO Ⅳ ID · AP · ⅯⅭⅯⅩⅤ (To the greater glory of God and in loving memory of John Claude Daubuz, M.A., magistrate and deputy lieutenant of this county, notable among the founders of this Cathedral for his interest and generosity, who died in Christ on 10th April 1915).

Memorial to the fallen of the two World Wars.

The memorial to the fallen of the First World War (Figure 120) is modest compared with the monumental commemorative memorial for the Boer War designed by Frank Loughborough Pearson at the end of the south nave aisle. The First World War memorial and desk were made by the Pinwill studio in , the same year as the civic war memorial that dominates Boscawen Street.

The Pinwill memorial in the cathedral was made in oak that originated from the old St Mary’s church, Truro.8 It was donated by Miss Daubiz in memory of John Claude Daubiz, Deputy Lieutenant of the County and a member of the original Building Committee for the cathedral in the . This same family also donated stained glass windows in to the old St Mary’s church and which are still in St Mary’s Aisle.9 The memorial was subsequently adapted after the Second World War to include victims of the later conflict.

Quire stall statues

There are twenty-six stalls in the quire, twenty-four of which are Canons’ stalls named after Cornish saints. In most cases, each stall has a statue of the appropriate saint, whilst the remainder are from the Gospels or later Christian history. They were inserted over three decades, from the making of the first canopies of to the last in , and paid for by donations. The statues were subsequently gilded and coloured circa from a legacy left to the Dean and Chapter by Miss Patience du Boulay.10

Figure 140. Models for twelve of the saints’ carvings in the quire stalls. Back shelf:- Winwalloe, Constantine, Buriana, Conan, Ia, Piran. Lower shelf:- Germoe, Aldhelm, Meriodocus, Nectan, Germanus, Carantoc.

Cathedral Archive sources11 include a photograph (Figure 140) of twelve of the statues displayed on two shelves, probably taken in the Pinwill Plymouth studio.12 As these statues were inserted over a period of twenty years it is possible that they were clay models that Pinwill often made as a guide for the final carving. They also reveal extra details that show the extent of the damage that the statues have suffered. The archive also contains the original sketches for eleven of the statues, with written comments by Violet Pinwill.13 Reference is made below to differences between the sketches and the final product. The sketches obviously pre-date the production of the clay models which must have been made by at the latest.

South quire stall statues

From east to west:

Figure 150. SQ1. St John, inserted , has a bible in his right hand. St John’s evangelistic emblem of an eagle with outstretched wings is at his feet.

Statue of St Margaret of Antioch Dragon at St Margaret s feet

Figure 160. SQ2. St Margaret of Antioch, inserted , is wearing a coronet and holding a bible and pastoral staff. Round her feet is curved a very characterful dragon.

Statue of Blessed Virgin Mary seen from the side Statue of Blessed Virgin Mary seen from the front

Figure 170. SQ3. Blessed Virgin Mary, inserted , is holding a lily with the baby Christ in arms. This statue was possibly donated by AC Benson.14

Statue of St Germanus seen from the side Statue of St Germanus seen from the front Dead stag at St Germanus’ feet Orginal sketch for St Germanus

Figure 180. SQ4. St Germanus, inserted , is shown mitred and holding what was originally a full crook, since damaged. A dead stag is at his feet, and Pinwill’s comments on her sketch are with dead and hunted animals lying around him.

Statue of St Wenn St Wenn’s hair in braids with bows!

Figure 190. SQ5. St Wenn, inserted , is wearing a coronet and has long braided hair with delightful bows! She is holding a pastoral staff.

Statue of St Carantoc seen from the side Statue of St Carantoc seen from the front

Figure 200. SQ6. St Carantoc, inserted , is shown mitred and holding a Bible and pastoral staff with crooked end. There was originally a small bird on his left shoulder (now missing).

Statue of St Buriana seen from the side Statue of St Buriana seen from the front Model of St Buriana’s church Original sketch for St Buriana

Figure 210. SQ7. St Buriana, inserted , is wearing a nun’s habit and holding a pastoral staff with a cross on it, now damaged. She is also holding a model of a church with tower, which Pinwill comments on her sketch represents the parish church of St Buryan in West Penwith.

Statue of St Ia seen from the side Statue of St Ia seen from the front Model of a boat Original sketch for St Ia

Figure 220. SQ8. St Ia, inserted , is wearing a nun’s habit. Her right hand holds a model of a boat whilst her left hand holds a martyr’s palm.

Statue of St Piran seen from the side Statue of St Piran seen from the front Original sketch for St Piran

Figure 230. SQ9. St Piran, inserted , is shown wearing monastic habit. He holds a model of his oratory in right hand and in his left what was originally a T staff, since damaged. In the original sketch, Violet Pinwill suggested him holding a rock with a spring of water, but this was replaced by the oratory presumably to avoid confusion with St Stephen’s attribute (NQ1) of the rocks of his martyrdom.

Statue of St Breaca Original sketch for St Breaca

Figure 240. SQ10. St Breaca, inserted , is shown wearing a nun’s habit. She is holding a model of a building which represents the church at Breage. Pinwill’s sketch does not include the church, but has the comment should have a church as an emblem.

Statue of St Petroc seen from the side Statue of St Petroc seen from the front Sheep at St Petroc’s side Original sketch for St Petroc

Figure 250. SQ11. St Petroc, inserted , is clothed in monastic habit. He is holding a bowl and a crooked pastoral staff, now damaged. At his foot is a sheep rather than his usual attribute, a stag.

Statue of St Constantine St Constantine’s armour

Figure 260. SQ12. St Constantine, inserted , is in armour and wearing a coronet. He is holding a labarum, a military standard displaying the chi-rho symbol , since damaged. His left hand is on a sword.

Statue of St Richard St Richard’s flagon

Figure 270. SQ13. St Richard, inserted , is wearing a mitre and holding a bishop’s crozier. He has a flagon in his right hand. This statue is of St Richard of Chichester, , also featured on the reredos of All Saints chapel.

Statue of St Germoe Model of St Germoe’s church

Figure 280. SQ14. St Germoe, inserted , is in priestly attire holding a T-shaped pastoral staff. His right hand holds a model of a church with tower, which is probably the parish church of St Germoe.

Statue of St Aldhelm Original sketch for St Aldhelm

Figure 290. SQ15. St Aldhelm, inserted , the first Bishop of Sherborne, , is shown mitred and holding a bible and what was originally a full crook, since damaged.

Figure 300. SQ16. St Uni, inserted , is shown in monastic habit and holding a Latin cross to his chest.

North quire stall statues

From east to west:

Statue of St Stephen Another view of the statue of St Stephen

Figure 310. NQ1. St Stephen, inserted 15, is clothed in Deacon’s vestments. He has a martyr’s palm and holds two rocks in his left hand as a symbol of his martyrdom. His name, like that of St Lawrence (Figure 320), is inscribed on the blue-green pedestal immediately below his feet, rather than on the gold support below it where the subjects of most of the other statues have their names.

Statue of St Lawrence Another view of the status of St Lawrence

Figure 320. NQ2. St Lawrence, inserted 16, is clothed in Deacon’s vestments. He holds a bible and his usual attribute of a grid-iron. His name, like that of St Stephen (Figure 310), is inscribed on the blue-green pedestal immediately below his feet, rather than on the gold support below it where the subjects of most of the other statues have their names.

Statue of St Romon St Rumon’s bell

Figure 330. NQ3. St Rumon, inserted in 17, is shown mitred. He is giving a blessing and holding a bell and a pastoral staff with crooked ending.

Statue of St Neot St Neot’s fish Original sketch for St Neot

Figure 340. NQ4. St Neot, inserted in , is in monastic habit. He has a Bible in left hand and three fishes in his right, a reference to the medieval legend of St Neot.18 The original sketch shows him holding a hunting horn and a stag by his side, a reference to another medieval legend of him taming wild stags after the villagers’ livestock had been stolen.19 The alteration was made presumably to avoid confusion with the stag in SQ4 St Germanus.

Statue of King Arthur seen from the side Statue of King Arthur seen from the front

Figure 350. NQ5. King Arthur (no insertion date20) is shown crowned and in armour. He is holding a sword, probably Excalibur, the hilt of which seems to be missing.

Statue of St Meriodocus seen from the side Statue of St Meriodocus seen from the front

Figure 360. NQ6. St Meriodocus, inserted , is in priest’s vestments with a coronet. He holds a pastoral staff with crooked end. The figure was donated by Mr and Mrs JH Hickey.21

Statue of St Winwaloe Original sketch for St Winwaloe

Figure 370. NQ7. St Winwaloe, inserted , is shown in monastic habit with a mitre, and holding what was originally a full crook, since damaged. There is a bell in his right hand. The figure was donated by Mr and Mrs JH Hickey.22

Statue of St Columb seen from the side Statue of St Column seen from the front St Columb’s doves

Figure 380. NQ8. St Columb, inserted , is in a simple tunic. He holds a martyr’s palm in his right hand, with a dove on his left hand and another on his shoulder (Columba—Latin = dove).

Statue of King Brychan Children in the fold of King Brychan’s cloak

Figure 390. NQ9. King Brychan, inserted , has a coronet and is holding a sceptre. He is holding children in the fold of his cloak. This is a reference to the legend of his twenty-four children who were all missionaries, but the image has medieval origins in alabaster statues and stained glass of God or Adam holding the souls of men in a napkin.23

Statue of St Endelienta seen from the side Statud of St Endelienta seen from the front The bull at St Endelienta’s feet

Figure 400. NQ10. St Endelienta, inserted , holds a Bible in both hands. There is a bull at her feet.

Statue of St Cybi St Cybi’s bell Original sketch for St Cybi

Figure 410. NQ11. St Cybi, inserted , is in priest’s attire. In his left hand is a bell inscribed with a Celtic cross, and in his right a pastoral staff with a crooked end. The original sketch showed a mitred figure in full priest’s robes and holding a staff with cross: one can suggest that this was not deemed suitably ‘Celtic’!

Statue of St Pol de Léon seen from the side Statue of St Pol de Léeon seen from the front

Figure 420. NQ12. St Pol de Léon or Aurelian, inserted , is vested as priest. He is holding a Bible and pastoral staff with crooked end.

Statue of St Nectan seen from the side Statue of St Nectan seen from the front Original sketch for St Nectan

Figure 430. NQ13. St Nectan, inserted , is in monastic habit. He is reading from an open Bible and holding a T-shaped staff. The original sketch was of a priest holding a cross in both hands and totally different from the clay model and the final carving.

Statue of St Conan seen from the side Statue of St Conan seen from the front

Figure 440. NQ14. St Conan, inserted , is shown mitred and giving a blessing. He holds a crozier.

Statue of St Michael St Michael’s sword and scales of justice

Figure 450. NQ15. St Michael, inserted , is shown winged and in armour. He is plunging a sword into a figure of Satan, and from the sword are hanging the scales of justice. Given as a memorial to Dr GR Sinclair, first Organist of the Cathedral by the Revd Canon EC Corfe, Precentor , the figure was dedicated on 1st May 1927.24 A chart25 of the stalls of lists this figure erroneously as St Samson, after the Canon’s stall, but the figure of St Samson is in the reredos of the Chapel of St Samson and St Boniface.

Statue of St Cecilia seen from the side Statue of St Cecilia seen from the front

Figure 460. NQ16. St Cecilia, inserted , is shown holding a portable organ. Given as a memorial to Dr GR Sinclair, first Organist of the Cathedral by the Revd Canon EC Corfe, Precentor , the figure was dedicated on 1st May 1927.26

Some final conclusions on the portrayal of the Cornish saints

It was Bishop Benson’s intention that the early missionary saints who came to Cornwall from the 6th century onwards would have a prominent place in his new cathedral for Cornwall. He, along with others, had a problem in the last decades of the 19th century in reconciling Celtic and Roman Christianity.27 It is significant that by the Pinwill was consistently portraying the Cornish saints in the vestments and attire of the Church of Rome.

It is notable how Pinwill uses the attributes from medieval Cornish saints’ legends like pastoral staffs and bells which, besides being symbols of authority and presence of the supernatural, were also practical aids to travelling and preaching. It is also notable how often models of the actual Cornish church buildings are used to identify individual saints.

Part 3: Modified Carvings

Finally, there are two products of the Pinwill studio that fulfil neither liturgical nor decorative functions.

St Endelienta Quire stall

Figure 470. IN PIAM MEMORIAM EMILIAE GLYNN GRYLLS (In loving memory of Emily Glynn Grylls ).

DOMINE DILEXI DECOREM DOMVS TVAE (Lord, I have loved the habitation of thy house} (Psalms 26:8).

The St Endelienta Quire stall with memorial to Emily Glynn Grylls. Above the coat of arms (“lozenge”-shaped, for a female) is the Cornish motto Rag y mattern ha y pobel (for his King and his People). The arms of Grylls of Helston are or, three bendlets enhanced gules, (Burke Vol Ⅱ, ) and the Latin motto below the arms is Vires agminis unus habet (One man has the strength of an army).

On the rear panel of this stall an added inscription (Figure 470) was carved by the Pinwill studio in .28 It consists of an armorial with mottos, and inscription dedicated to Emily Glynn Grylls .

The altar candle holders29

Figure 480. The upper parts of the original altar candle holders, now used to hold the ropes round the podium.

Figure 490. The lower parts of the original altar candle holders, now modified with new candle holders.

Figure 500. The altar candle holders in their original form.

Originally these were four whole candle holders by the Pinwill studio for the Sanctuary, and had a defined liturgical purpose in the quire and sanctuary. Later each holder was divided into two parts. The upper parts including the central boss were inverted and provided with an added base for stability. They are now used as ‘bollards’ to hold the ropes round the podium. The lower parts have been modified with new candle holders and are still used for funerals. They are otherwise stored in the Canons’ vestry.

Conclusions

There are over fifty individual carvings from the Pinwill studio at Truro cathedral. Inserted over more than three decades, they are of significant interest not only in the context of the evolution of the fixtures and fittings of the cathedral, but also the way they reflect changes in artistic styles.

Until the commencement of the First World War, the evolution of the cathedral and its fixtures and fittings was dominated by the Gothic Revival vision of John Loughborough Pearson and Bishop Benson. Although both died before , this vision was shared by the key individuals who were responsible for the ultimate conclusion of the building in . Frank Loughborough Pearson continued his father’s architectural designs with very little alteration, whilst the development of the cathedral’s interior was in the hands of Chancellor Arthur Worlledge and Canon Arthur James Mason, who might be regarded as Bishop Benson’s disciples.

After , the shadow of Benson and Pearson faded, especially under Bishop Frere, whose reordering brought a new interpretation to the functions of the building and its artistic expression. This was particularly shown in the creation of new Chapels (the Jesus chapel and the chapel of St Samson and St Boniface) and the progressive completion of the canopies to the quire stalls.30 The dominance of the Gothic Revival style gradually merged into that of the Arts and Crafts, led by the products of the Pinwill studio. As has been shown, the Pinwill carvings played an important part in defining the manner in which the Celtic Revival and the Cornish saints were interpreted.

In one further respect Violet Pinwill led the way in the artistic development of the cathedral. With the commissioning of so many items from the Pinwill studio, the cathedral was for the first time using a female artist and designer. This trend towards female artists had already started before when the Pinwill studio produced the outstanding carvings for Father George Metford Parson’s restoration of his church at Crantock.31 Female Arts and Crafts designers were also achieving prominence in stained glass, witness the fine window by Mary Lowndes at St Erme of . Mary Lowndes was, like Violet Pinwill, a highly successful entrepreneur running her own stained glass business in London.32 Another important example of this trend towards female arts and crafts was Anne Walke’s reredos for the new Jesus Chapel. It is within this context that the Pinwill carvings at Truro cathedral can now be seen as a significant historical and artistic development.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to acknowledge the generous help and advice given by Helen Wilson in the preparation of this monograph, and the information given by Elizabeth Stewart on the Cornish Grylls motto.

References

  1. Truro Cathedral Inventory (TCI) record 343. Death of Lady Mary Trefusis on 12th September 1927 reported in The Cornishman and Cornish Telegraph 14th September 1927 p 5. Forthcoming installation of reredos in memory of Lady Mary Trefusis reported in Western Morning News 22nd July 1931 p 2.
  2. MG Swift, P Lambert and J Whitehouse. Truro Cathedral Baptistery, Truro Cathedral monograph No 3.
  3. Cornwall County Record Office (CCRO) TCM/424/1.
    Unused sketch of John Wesley Unused sketch of St Bartholomew

    Unused sketches by Violet Pinwill of John Wesley and St Bartholomew.

    In addition are sketches of John Wesley and St Bartholomew, neither of which was commissioned, and with no indication of their possible location.
  4. TCI record 375 and inscription.
  5. TCI record 302.
  6. TCI and inscription. Death reported in The Cornishman and Cornish Telegraph 6th July 1933 p 4.
  7. TCI record 790 and inscription.
  8. TCI record 1534. John Claude Daubuz died 10th April 1915 (West Briton 12th April 1915 p 3). The Book of Remembrance and carved desk were lodged in the Cathedral during the Armistice Day service in (The Cornubian 17th November 1921 p 5). The Daubuz memorial was dedicated on 25th June 1922 (The Cornubian 29th June 1922 p 6).
  9. The window inscriptions list the family as Daubuz.
  10. TCI records 1392–1422.
  11. CCRO TCM/424/1.
  12. Devon County Records (Plymouth). Back shelf:- Winwalloe, Constantine, Buriana, Conan, Ia, Piran. Lower shelf:- Germoe, Aldhelm, Meriodocus, Nectan, Germanus, Carantoc.
  13. CCRO TCM/424/1.
  14. TCI record 22.
  15. TCI record 51.
  16. TCI record 50.
  17. TCI record 49.
  18. Fully shown in panels in window n7 of at St Neot parish church: J Mattingly and MG Swift, Pre-Dissolution stained glass in Cornwall.
  19. Also fully shown in panels in window n7 of at St Neot parish church: J Mattingly and MG Swift, op. cit.
  20. This figure is not included in TCI.
  21. TCI record 46.
  22. TCI record 45.
  23. Window n6 of at St Neot parish church: J Mattingly and MG Swift, op. cit..
  24. TCI record 37.
  25. Framed in the Canons’ Vestry.
  26. TCI record 35
  27. EW Benson, The Cathedral: its necessary place in the life and work of the Church, p 159, London, 1878. On his intention to name the Canons’ stalls at Truro Cathedral after the Cornish saints to read into a record of our own past, and of our connection with the other antient [sic] churches prior to the Romish usurpations.
  28. Emily Glynn Grylls died 11th June 1933 (The Cornishman, 15th June 1933 p 4). Insertion of carving reported in the Western Morning News, 15th December 1943 p 2. Quoted from a newspaper article: information kindly supplied by Helen Wilson. Old Cornwall magazine in gives the Cornish motto as Hag y Matern ha y Pobel and Robert Morton Nance writes, around the same time, Ha’y Maghtern ha’y Bobel.
  29. TCI records 1773–6 and 1786–9.
  30. Donors were sought for £150 per canopy.
  31. MG Swift and J Stewart-Smith, The stained glass windows of St Carantoc, Cornwall.
  32. Establishment of The House of Glass in Fulham in by Mary Lowndes and Alfred Drury, preceded by Sarah Purser’s Tower of Glass (An Túr Gloine) in Dublin in .