Chapter 14 The windows of St Mary’s aisle

Truro’s first cathedral was St Mary’s parish church, completed except for the tower in , and the third church to be built on that site.408 It consisted of a nave, a south aisle of eight bays and a north aisle of five bays. Unusually for Cornwall, the exterior granite surface of the south aisle was highly ornamented, like the more well-known examples of St Mary Magdalene at Launceston and St Austell. The steeple was added in .409 By the 1870s the deteriorating condition of the church was causing great alarm, and a restoration appeal was already in place before the Truro see was created. The decision to retain the south aisle and to build the new cathedral on to it was a source of much controversy. Whilst Benson did not approve of the tinkering up of old stones, Pearson and the Executive Committee were in favour of restoring the aisle to retain something of the old church and preserving a continuity of civic history.410

The east and south sides of St Mary’s church in , after demolition of the rest.

The original photograph is in an album belonging to the Daubuz family, now held by Kresen Kernow, reference X230/68.

In the morning of , four months after the ceremony of the laying of the foundation stones, a wedding service was held in St Mary’s church.411 At its conclusion, work started immediately on taking down the old church to prepare the site for the foundations of the new cathedral.412

The new cathedral in , with St Mary’s aisle in the foreground.

In many respects, the stained glass in St Mary’s aisle today resembles that of most parish churches, i.e. a collection of windows of various ages, in differing artistic styles, and by different manufacturers.

Pre-nineteenth century glass.

Records show various pre-nineteenth century armorials were in the original north aisle (John Earl of Cornwall, the Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall, Mary Tregian),413 but these appear to have disappeared by the early years of the nineteenth century.414 Bearing in mind the evangelical nature of Revd Samuel Walker’s curacy in the eighteenth century (s24) such coloured glass would have been little valued, and any that had remained was probably allowed to deteriorate with time. Two armorials in the south aisle (Robartes and one inscribed ‘Willmo ’) were recorded as still being in situ in .415

SMs8 tracery. A medieval-style head.

SMs12 tracery. Medieval fragments. On the right is an Agnus Dei.

SMs13 tracery. Medieval fragments.

The only medieval glass fragments to have survived today are those in the tracery of SMs8, SMs12 and SMs13. There is no guarantee that these are from the church’s original windows, but they do include an obvious Agnus Dei in SMs12 and a medieval-style head in SMs8416. The fragments, which include inscriptions, appear to be from a number of sources and were inserted in .

There are two more panels of pre-nineteenth century glass and these are considered in the context of the Kempe window SM1 below.

The William Warrington windows.

One hundred years after the evangelical Revd Samuel Walker, the ritual status of St Mary’s Truro in the 1840s under the curacy of Revd William Woodes Harvey was completely different. Harvey was a Tractarian, having served as curate to Revd WJ Coope at Falmouth King Charles in the 1830s.417 The stained glass revival in the Church of England that had started in the early 1840s had already reached the Diocese of Exeter418. Stained glass windows were installed by clergy with High Church leanings in a number of Cornish churches in this decade.419 Between and a series of windows was designed and inserted in St Mary’s Truro by William Warrington of London, who had already been responsible for a major set of windows at Padstow.420 A large five-light window was placed in the chancel east, with figures of St Simon, St James the Less, Christ with an orb in his hand, St John and St Phillip beneath substantial canopies.421 An illustration of this window appeared in Warrington’s influential book The History of Stained Glass which was published in .422 When the chancel of St Mary’s was demolished in this stained glass was removed into storage, and in was inserted into the new custom-made chancel window of St Paul’s parish church, Chacewater, seven miles from Truro.

The remaining Warrington windows were all were reinserted by into the east and south walls of St Mary’s aisle (then designated the Lady Chapel) in the new cathedral.423 Revd Harvey’s inventory in stated that all the glass wants re-leading, and is damaged and broken in many places. There is no record which studio was responsible for these re-leadings and repairs, but it is likely in view of the quality of the work, that Clayton and Bell were probably involved at this stage.

The five-light east window of this aisle was originally inserted in , one of a series of eight Warrington windows inserted between and . It consisted of diaper pattern with cross ribbons and inscriptions. In the upper portion of the central light the sacred monogram and in the upper portions of the other 4 lights the 4 cherubic figures of SS Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. In the centre of the 5 lights are the emblems of the Crucifixion and the sufferings of our Lord.424 Most of this glass was eventually replaced in (see below).

The six south wall windows SMs27 are all by William Warrington (his signature and date of insertion are at the feet of windows 2 right, 6 left and 7 left). They are typical examples of his use of bold primary colours, strong leading, dramatic design, and heavy painted shading. The subjects, which do not follow in chronological order, embrace the life and teachings of Christ, and were described in the inventory as:

Window Left Right
SMs2 Taking of Our Lord down from the Cross Our Lord laid in the Sepulchre.
SMs3 Angel announcing the Resurrection The Ascension.
SMs4 Supper at Bethany Visiting the sick.
SMs5 The Raising of Lazarus The Good Samaritan.
SMs6 Suffer little children Raising of Jairus’ daughter.
SMs7 The Pharisee and the Publican The entry into Jerusalem.

The same inventory also records that some lights had their inscriptions broken or were missing.

And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre (Mark 15:46).

SMs2 left. Taking of Our Lord down from the Cross. Right: our Lord laid in the Sepulchre.

SMs2 detail. The mark of the window’s maker: W. Warrington London , in the bottom right-hand corner of the right-hand light.

Why seek ye the living among the dead? He is not here, but is risen (Luke 24:5–6).

And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and … while he blessed them, he was parted from them (Luke 24:50–51).

In·Memoriam·Saræ·Harvey (In memory of Sarah Harvey, AD 1845).

SMs3. Left: Angel announcing the Resurrection. Right: the Ascension.

Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me (Matthew 25:40)

For ye have the poor with you always (Mark 14:7)

Matri pietate et Beneficentia insigni Filius admiraus Humphredus Willyams (To a remarkable mother, kind and loving, an admiring son Humphrey Willyams, 1846)

SMs4. Left: The supper at Bethany. Mary, the sister of Martha, anoints Christ. Right: the visitation of the sick.

I am the resurrection and the life, [saith the Lord] (John 11:25)

Charity suffereth long, and is kind (Ⅰ Corinthians 13:4)

In Mem Leudovici Caroh Daubuz Obiit (In memory of Lewis Charles Daubuz died )

SMs5. Left: The Raising of Lazarus. Right: the Good Samaritan.

Suffer little children to come unto me and forbid them not (Luke 18:16).

Weep not; she is not dead, but sleepeth (Luke 8:52).

In Memory of Wilnot [sic] Wife of Lewis Charles Daubuz Died Aged 44

SMs6 left. Suffer little children. Right: raising of Jairus’ daughter.

For whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted (Luke 14:11).

Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, Hosanna (Matthew 21:9).

In Memory of Lewis Charles Daubuz Died Aged 39

SMs7 left. The Pharisee and the Publican. Right: the entry into Jerusalem.

Two further points need to be made about the Warrington windows of the old St Mary’s church. Firstly it was very unusual in parish churches in the 1840s for so many windows (twenty-two lights) to be inserted in such a short period. The use of only one studio for the new windows of St Mary’s established an artistic unity that foreshadowed the eventual glazing of the new cathedral. Although the subject matter of these windows lacked the rigour and chronological detail of Mason’s later scheme, there was a certain unity in its exploration of the gospel narratives. All this suggests that between and the various donors were contributing to an agreed scheme, and that the originator of such a scheme was likely to have been Revd WW Harvey.

The second point follows on from this. Stained glass was (and still is) a very expensive medium, affordable by only a very small proportion of the early Victorian society. The donors of St Mary’s windows followed a well-established pattern for that period in that they were all drawn either from local property owners, many of whom were engaged in the mining industry, or the clergy.425 Although the list of donors of the Warrington windows is incomplete, the presence of the Willyams and Daubuz families, and the Revd William Harvey confirms this conclusion.

SM1. The east window.

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

The window was donated by Charlotte Carlyon in memory of Revd Thomas Carlyon, Rector of St Mary’s Truro, .426

SM1. In the centre is the Blessed Virgin Mary, flanked by scenes of the Adoration of the Magi and the Presentation at the Temple.

This window is a hybrid, in that it contains glass from three different centuries. As detailed above, this was one of the Warrington windows inserted in the late 1840s, and by the beginning of the twentieth century it must have seemed very old-fashioned in style and subject-matter, more so than the narrative Warrington windows of the south wall. The completion of the final building phase of the cathedral in afforded the opportunity to replace a substantial proportion of the window. Warrington’s tracery with its angels, texts and decorative patterns was retained, as were the lowest decorative panels at the foot of all five main lights. In these panels were hidden by the new reredos, donated and executed by Frank Loughborough Pearson. Above the reredos a new window by the Kempe studio was made, its outline and themes ingeniously following that of the reredos below. The window depicts the Blessed Virgin Mary in the centre, flanked by scenes of the Adoration of the Magi and the Presentation at the Temple. Artistically, Kempe’s windows are very different from those of Clayton and Bell’s in the rest of the cathedral. Typically the figures and scenes contain very subdued dark pot metal colours which contrast with his use of white glass and intricate staining patterns for detailed features such as clothes and haloes. The style of painting in the facial features is quite unique to this studio. Kempe’s rebus of a golden wheat sheaf, with the addition of a black tower, is in the left border.427

SM1 fragment. In the foreground is an altar with two candlesticks, and behind is a reredos with Christ on the cross and the Blessed Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene on the left, and St John on the right.

Two pieces of pre-nineteenth century glass were inserted into the Warrington decorative quarries behind the reredos. Behind the right hand reredos panel is an unidentified coat of arms of poor glass, crude repairs and inferior design. Behind the left hand panel however is a piece of Flemish glass probably of the seventeenth century. It shows in the foreground an altar with two candlesticks. Behind is a reredos with Christ on the cross and the Blessed Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene on the left, and St John on the right. The pelican in its piety is in the upper section of the reredos above the cross.428 It is work of high quality and was possibly part of an original roundel that has been cut down.429

The remaining windows of the south wall.

At the time of the consecration of the cathedral in , St Mary’s aisle east window and six of the south windows were filled with William Warrington glass, and the tracery of two more had the fragments of pre-Victorian glass. Two new windows (SMs10 and SMs11, both by Clayton & Bell) were inserted in time for the consecration, but the remaining windows were filled with plain glass.

None of the St Mary’s aisle windows were included in the Master Scheme for the new cathedral. Mason makes one illuminating comment in when a prospective donor (‘Mr Paddon’) approached Chapter with the offer to fill one of the remaining windows:

Nothing particular occurs to me with regard to Mr Paddon’s window. The series in the parish church is already so irregular that I should almost despair of making a scheme; but perhaps, as they have already introduced Parables, and as Our Lord’s teaching is necessarily little brought out in the Cathedral windows, it might be pleasant to take one or two more parables—the Prodigal Son e.g. Or some other scene in the ministry would be equally suitable, e.g. the Feeding of the 5000. Perhaps it is just as well to have one part of the building where there is a little more latitude …430

Significantly, even at this early date, Mason’s opinion was being sought by Chapter for windows that were outside the Master Scheme. Nothing came of this particular offer, and a further eight years elapsed before donors appeared with offers to fill some of the remaining windows of St Mary’s aisle with stained glass. These new windows were also designed and made by Clayton and Bell, but they rarely approached the quality of the windows in the cathedral proper. The basic design was single full-length figures, set beneath heavy architectural canopies with small narrative predellas below. Details of the cost of only one of the lancets have survived (left-hand light in SMs8 cost £50 in , which was about half the cost of a lancet in the main cathedral) but one can surmise that the lower cost was a factor in influencing donors to contribute in this aisle rather than in the main cathedral: indeed, in SMs8 and SMs10 separate donors gave a lancet each in these windows. In some cases, however, windows were donated in memory of people who had a particular association with the old St Mary’s church.

SMs8 a

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This was inserted in by many friends in memory of John Barrett.431

To·the·Glory·of·God·and·in·memory·of·John·Barrett Second·warden·of·the·Cathedral·Guild·of·Lay·Assistants. This·window·was·erected·by·many·friends·.

In·memory·of·John·Harold·Llewellyn·of·Truro·and formerly·of·Neath·South·Wales·Died·. And·of·his·wife·Elizabeth·Ann (Nan) Died·.

SMs8. The right-hand light (SMs8 b) was inserted in , over fifty years after the left-hand light (SMs8 a).

SMs8. The left-hand light (SMs8 a) was made by Clayton and Bell in ; the right-hand light (SMs8 b) was made by the AK Nicholson studio in .

I am Alpha and Omega the first and the last (Revelation 1:11). I am he that liveth (Revelation 1:18).

SMs8 2a. This panel shows the vision described in Revelation 1:10–20. The Son of Man stands in the midst of seven candlesticks, representing the seven churches of Asia. In His right hand he holds seven stars, representing the angels of the seven churches. In His left hand he holds a book in which are written Α and Ω (Alpha and Omega), pierced by a two-edged sword. The stigmata from the Crucifixion are visible on His hands.

SMs8 1a. St John leads the Blessed Virgin Mary away from the foot of the Cross, with two ladders and the base of the cross in the background.

The lancet retells the opening passage of the first chapter of St John’s gospel. The main subject is God the Father holding an open book pierced by a sword with Alpha and Omega on the pages. In his other hand is a representation of the heavenly firmament, and in the foreground are seven lighted candlesticks representing the seven sacraments. Below is a predella scene of St John leading the Blessed Virgin Mary away from the foot of the Cross, with two ladders and the base of the cross in the background.432

SMs9

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

These two lancets were inserted in .433 They were donated by the widow of Alderman William G Barrett of Chapel House, Truro.

To the Glory of God and in loving memory of William Barrett of Chapel House Truro. At rest . This window is placed by his widow.

SMs9. Christ and Mary Magdalene in the Garden after the resurrection.

Holy, Holy, Holy.

SMs9 tracery. Angel.

SMs9 2a. Christ raises his hand to prevent Mary Magdalene touching him.SMs9 2b. Mary Magdalene about to touch Christ.

Touch me not I am not yet ascended (John 20:17).

SMs9 2a and SMs9 2b. Christ raises his hand, showing his stigmata (wounds from the Crucifixion), to prevent Mary Magdalene touching him. Mary has a pot of ointment at her feet.

I ascend unto my Father and your Father and to my God and your God (John 20:17).

SMs9 1a.

I ascend unto my Father and your Father and to my God and your God (John 20:17).

SMs9 1b.

The main scene is ‘Noli me tangere’—Christ in the Garden after the resurrection. In reaching out to prevent Mary from touching him, his wounds are revealed on his hands. Mary Magdalene has a pot of ointment at her feet. The not very inspired predellas below show two angels carrying inscribed scrolls.

SMs10

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

These two lancets were inserted in , in time for the consecration of the Cathedral. The left lancet is dedicated to Mrs Elizabeth Heard, former publisher and printer of the West Briton newspaper, with her children Clara and John, and the right lancet is dedicated to Mr Richard Andrews, former Truro postmaster, and his children Richard and Esther.434

In memory of Mrs E Heard of this Parish died aged 80 years, her daughter Clara Isabella died and her son John McFarlane died .

In memory of R Andrews of this Parish died and of his son Richard died also of his daughter Esther Elizabeth died .

SMs10.

SMs10 tracery. IHS monogram.

SMs10 2a. James and John in a fishing boat with their father Zebedee.SMs10 2b. Christ summons James and John.

SMs10 2a and SMs10 2b. Christ summons James and John, who are in a fishing boat with their father Zebedee.

SMs10 2a lower. An angel holding a bannerSMS10 2b lower. An angel holding a banner

Illi autem statim relictis retibus et patre, secuti sunt eum (And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him) Matthew 4:22).

SMs10 2a lower and SMs10 2b lower.

Hic est Filius Meus dilectus in quo Mihi complacui (This is My beloved Son in, whom I am well pleased) (Matthew 3:17).

SMs10 1a. John the Baptist baptises Christ, with an attendant angel.

Dom(ine) da mihi hanc aq(u)am ut non sitiam (Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not) (John 4:15).

SMs10 1b. Christ with the woman at Jacob’s well in Samaria.

The scenes are all concerned with the symbolism of water in Christ’s mission, and lead directly the baptistry area at the end of the aisle, SMs14. The main scene across both lights is Christ summoning the fishermen. Beneath are two predellas showing the Baptism of Christ with an attendant angel, and Christ with the woman at Jacob’s well in Samaria.

Like the first tranche of windows inserted in the main body of the cathedral in , the subject inscriptions are in Latin, whereas the memorial inscriptions are in English. There are noticeable differences in style and colouring between this window and the later Clayton & Bell windows of St Mary’s aisle.

SMs11

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

These two lancets were inserted in , in time for the consecration of the Cathedral. They are dedicated to Catherine Dickson and her children Catherine, Frances and George.435

In memory of Catherine Dickson of this Parish died , and of Catherine her daughter—.
and of Frances her daughter— also of George her son .

SMs11.

The Sermon on the MountThe Sermon on the Mount

SMs11 2a and SMs11 2b. The Sermon on the Mount.

An angel holding a scrollAn angel holding a scroll

Beati qui esuriunt et sitiunt iustitiam quoniam ipsi saturabuntur (Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled) (Matthew 5:6).

SMs11 2a lower and SMs11 2b lower.

Ecce exiit qui seminat seminare (Behold, a sower went forth to sow) (Matthew 13:3).

SMs11 1a. The Parable of the Sower: the sower casts seed on good soil, with a rustic church in the background.

Alia autem ceciderunt in terram bonam. (But other fell into good ground) (Matthew 13:8).

SMs11 1b. The Parable of the Sower: the reaper harvests a good crop, with a city dominated by church towers and steeples in the background.

The main scene is the Sermon on the Mount, and the two predellas below show two scenes of the Parable of the Sower—the sower broadcasting the seed on good soil, and the reaper harvesting a good crop. The backgrounds comment on the results of this action: a rustic church in the first scene is replaced by a major city dominated by church towers and steeples in the second.

Like the first tranche of windows inserted in the main body of the cathedral in , the subject inscriptions are in Latin, whereas the memorial inscriptions are in English. There are noticeable differences in style and colouring between this window and the later Clayton & Bell windows of St Mary’s aisle.

SMs14

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

The window was donated by George and Miss Heard in memory of their parents Edward and Eliza Goodridge Heard and was inserted in .436

This five-light window is the largest in the south wall of the aisle, Incidentally, the epitaph to the dedicatee is worth placing within the social context of the final years of the Victorian Age: He was a good son, a good husband, a good father, a good citizen and a good master.

Each light shows a main figure above a related predella, and all are connected by the imagery and symbolism of water. This was, and still is, the baptistry area for the old parish church, and it is not surprising that Mason was directly involved in the window design.437 Its typological structure, contrasting Old and New Testament figures and events, relates directly to those in the cathedral’s baptistry vestibule (s1315).

To the Glory of God and in loving memory of Edward Goodridge Heard who died and of Eliza his wife who died both of Truro. He was a good Son a good Husband a good Father a good Citizen and a good Master

SMs14. Noah holding a model of the Ark, Moses and two tablets of the Commandments, St John the Baptist, St Peter and St Philip.

SMs14 1a. Noah and his wife supervising the entry of animals into the Ark.

In the first light, Noah, holding a model of the Ark and a leaf to represent the one the dove brought back to the Ark, is placed above a scene with Noah, his wife and sons supervising the entry of the animals (including giraffe and lion) into the Ark. In the second, Moses is shown carrying the two tablets of the Ten Commandments above a scene of the water flowing from the smitten rock. These two Old Testament lights are the prelude to the central lancet which shows St John the Baptist above the scene of the Baptism of Christ. The biblical chronology now moves on in the last two lights to St Peter holding his keys and a clasped book above a scene of his baptism of Cornelius. Finally, St Philip holding a scallop shell is shown above a scene of his baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch, whose chariot and horse are in the background.

SMs8 b. The Nicholson window.

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

In , donors proposed to give a window in memory of John Harold Llewellyn of Truro and formerly of Neath, South Wales, and of his wife Elizabeth Ann (Nan). The window was inserted in .438

After the last window was inserted in before the outbreak of the First World War, the main lights of SMs12 and SMs13 and the right-hand light of SMs8 were still glazed with plain glass. The studio of AK Nicholson was approached to produce a window that would match in artistic style the other Clayton and Bell lights in St Mary’s aisle and would complement the iconography of the existing left-hand light SMs8 a of .

I John saw these things and heard them (Revelation 22:8).

SMs8 2b. St John the Evangelist, holding a book and quill pen and, at his feet, his emblem of an eagle. The eagle is holding a container, probably a pot of ink, in its beak.

SMs8 1b. Annunciation to the Virgin Mary?

The attempt to match the Clayton and Bell style was remarkably successful, and most viewers today accept without question that the light is pre First World War. Closer inspection however reveals some significant differences in the range of colours and the style of glass painting between the two lights in this window. Already there was pre-nineteenth century glass in the upper panel of the window (see above). The main figure is St John the Evangelist, holding a book and quill pen, with his emblem of an eagle at his feet. The scrolled inscription above his head says I John saw these things and heard them. The predella subject is a puzzle. It shows a very medieval scene of a kneeling female with a crown being serenaded by a youthful figure playing a lyre. Placing it in the context of both lights, it seems that this is meant to be an Annunciation to the Virgin Mary (notice her startled body language). It directly connects with the corresponding predella scene in the left light of St John taking Mary into his care after the Crucifixion, and relates to the predellas in s2 (Chapter 6).

Despite Mason’s sense of despair in having no ideas on how to order and unify the post- windows, there is some artistic and thematic unity to the windows of this aisle. Once again, there is no evidence of potential donors taking exception to paying for Clayton and Bell products rather than selecting a studio of their own choice. It appears that Mason’s suggestion of introducing parables as Our Lord’s teaching is necessarily little brought out in the Cathedral windows was heeded, so a thematic, if not artistic, unity with the already inserted William Warrington windows on the south wall was established after all. Mason also was able to devise a typical typological scheme for the Baptistry area window. The Nicholson window was the last window to be inserted in Truro Cathedral to date. Except for the pre-nineteenth century fragments in their tracery, the windows SMs12 and SMs13 remain plain glass today.

References

  1. J Polsue, A Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, vol Ⅳ p 250. William Lake, Truro,
  2. Brown, H Miles, The Story of Truro Cathedral, p 4. Redruth, Tor Mark Press,
  3. Brown, H Miles, The Story of Truro Cathedral, p 15. Redruth, Tor Mark Press, . DCT/P/41: a ground-plan of the proposed cathedral showing the superimposed outlines of the building with and without the retention of St Mary’s aisle. The comments around the margins of the plan suggest this was presented to the Executive Committee in when the final decision on the retention of the aisle was made.
  4. Brown, H Miles, The Story of Truro Cathedral, p 17. Redruth, Tor Mark Press, , Barham L Fisher, Creation of a Cathedral, p 20. Falmouth, Glasney Press, . Early on this Monday morning, over 100 people took communion before the wedding of Joseph Cock of Truro and Emily Dyer of Perranzabuloe. Royal Cornwall Gazette p 5.
  5. Barham L Fisher, Creation of a Cathedral, p 20. Falmouth, Glasney Press, . For the next seven years, , cathedral services were held in Truro’s second cathedral, a temporary wooden building on the site of the nave of the future cathedral. It was furnished with many fitments from the old church, and Benson’s Nine Lessons and Carols was first held there on .
  6. J Polsue, A Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, vol Ⅳ p 250. William Lake, Truro,
  7. J Polsue, A Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, vol Ⅳ p 253. William Lake, Truro,
  8. J Polsue, A Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, vol Ⅳ p 251. William Lake, Truro,
  9. J Mattingly and MG Swift Pre-Dissolution stained glass in Cornwall, originally published in Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi journal Vidimus Vol. 31, July 2009.
  10. Brown, H Miles, The Catholic Revival in Cornish Anglicanism: A Study of the Tractarians of Cornwall, , p 4, 27. St Winnow,
  11. The Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society was one of the first of its kind to be formed in the country. Transactions of the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society, Volume 2, , p 114 shows that of 272 members, twenty had Cornish addresses.
  12. TRUROSEE. In addition to St Mary’s Truro, other notable 1840s stained glass windows in Cornwall were inserted at Falmouth, Padstow, Madron and Maramchurch. The most complete set was at the new church at St Paul’s Penzance, , where the Tractarian Revd Henry Batten paid for both the church and the windows that were designed by Thomas Willement.
  13. Most of St Petroc, Padstow had been glazed with glass donated by the Prideaux-Brune family in the 1840s.
  14. TCM/1275 Letter from Truro Rectory (Rev Harvey) to Mr JC Daubuz (Carvedras Smelting Works, St Georges Road) . A photograph of the window in situ is in Brown, H Miles, The Story of Truro Cathedral, p 9. Redruth, Tor Mark Press, .
  15. Boreham The story of the windows of Truro Cathedral, undated, published , p 10.
  16. TCM/53 Executive Committee minutes records the Cathedral taking responsibility for the St Mary glass. TCM/1275 Letter from Truro Rectory (Rev Harvey) to Mr JC Daubuz (Carvedras Smelting Works, St Georges Road) refers to Swaine (Robert Swaine, clerk of works) has taken the windows out of their cases and sends the list below. TCM/53 Executive Committee minutes , windows reinserted.
  17. TCM/1275 Letter from Truro Rectory (Rev Harvey) to Mr JC Daubuz (Carvedras Smelting Works, St Georges Road) . This window is shown in situ in a watercolour by J Van Hacht Interior of St Mary’s Truro at the Royal Cornwall Museum, reference TRURI: 1000.467.
  18. Michael Swift Anglican stained glass in Cornwall and its social context, originally published in The Royal Institution of Cornwall Journal, 2009, pp 14–25.
  19. PNH Collins (ed) The Corpus of Kempe Stained Glass in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Crosby, , p 47 (Ref COR 18.1). TDK 1912, p 156. TDM 1911, p 135.
  20. In his later life Charles Eamer Kempe often signed his windows with a wheatsheaf. On his death the studio was taken over by his nephew Walter Tower, who added the black tower to the rebus. The tower was the family emblem of the Tower family, and appeared in Kempe’s windows for the new church of St Nicholas, Tresco, Isles of Scilly. This church was paid for by Miss Sophia Tower.
  21. TCM/1275. This detail is included in the inventory.
  22. In Cornwall, such roundels are to be found in the chapel and Chevy Chase room at St Michael Mount, see W Cole A catalogue of Netherlandish and North European Roundels in Britain, Oxford, , pp 242–246. There is also a series of North European roundels inserted in the nave windows of the parish church at Pendeen, West Penwith, Cornwall, see Michael Swift The roundels of Pendeen Church, originally published in Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi journal Vidimus Vol. 36, February 2010.
  23. TCM/1049/1 Letter from Canon Mason (7 Trinity Square) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  24. Dedication Truro Diocesan Kalendar p 162 (). Heard & Sons, Truro (D/E/3/13, D/E/4/7), cost £50. John Barrett was the second Warden of the Cathedral Guild of Lay Assistants. Insertion of SMs8 a West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser p 3.
  25. This panel makes an interesting contrast with the same scene in s2 (Chapter 6).
  26. TCM/1172 Canon Worlledge’s archive p 139—. Death of dedicatee reported in Cornishman p 5. Offer of window reported in Cornishman p 7. Insertion reported in Royal Cornwall Gazette p 5.
  27. Western Morning News p 5.
  28. Western Morning News p 5.
  29. TDM 1902, p 36. Insertion reported in Cornish Telegraph p 3, Royal Cornwall Gazette p 6, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser p 10. Donors were Messrs George and Edward Heard and Miss Heard, dedicatees their parents Alderman and Mrs Heard.
  30. TCM/1134 Residentiary Chapter Minute Book— approval of design on AJ Mason’s recommendation.
  31. Stained Glass windows and Master Glass Painters ( Directory of the British Society of Master Glass Painters) Bristol, , p 72, also TDF .