Chapter 14 The windows of St Mary’s aisle

Truro’s first cathedral was St Mary’s parish church, completed except for the tower in 1518, and the third church to be built on that site.408 It consisted of a nave, a south aisle of eight bays and a north aisle of five bays. Unusually for Cornwall, the exterior granite surface of the south aisle was highly ornamented, like the more well-known examples of St Mary Magdalene at Launceston and St Austell. The steeple was added in 1769.409 By the 1870s the deteriorating condition of the church was causing great alarm, and a restoration appeal was already in place before the Truro see was created. The decision to retain the south aisle and to build the new cathedral on to it was a source of much controversy. Whilst Benson did not approve of the tinkering up of old stones, Pearson and the Executive Committee were in favour of restoring the aisle to retain something of the old church and preserving a continuity of civic history.410

The east and south sides of St Mary’s church in 1880, after demolition of the rest.

In the morning of October 11th 1880, four months after the ceremony of the laying of the foundation stones, a wedding service was held in St Mary’s church.411 At its conclusion, work started immediately on taking down the old church to prepare the site for the foundations of the new cathedral.412

The new cathedral in 1887, with St Mary’s aisle in the foreground.

In many respects, the stained glass in St Mary’s aisle today resembles that of most parish churches, i.e. a collection of windows of various ages, in differing artistic styles, and by different manufacturers.

Pre-nineteenth century glass.

Records show various pre-nineteenth century armorials were in the original north aisle (John Earl of Cornwall, the Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall, Mary Tregian),413 but these appear to have disappeared by the early years of the nineteenth century.414 Bearing in mind the evangelical nature of Revd Samuel Walker’s curacy in the eighteenth century (s24) such coloured glass would have been little valued, and any that had remained was probably allowed to deteriorate with time. Two armorials in the south aisle (Robartes and one inscribed ‘Willmo 1548’) were recorded as still being in situ in 1870.415

SMs8 tracery. A medieval-style head.
SMs12 tracery. Medieval fragments. On the right is an Agnus Dei.
SMs13 tracery. Medieval fragments.

The only medieval glass fragments to have survived today are those in the tracery of SMs8, SMs12 and SMs13. There is no guarantee that these are from the church’s original windows, but they do include an obvious Agnus Dei in SMs12 and a medieval-style head in SMs8416. The fragments, which include inscriptions, appear to be from a number of sources and were inserted in 1885.

There are two more panels of pre-nineteenth century glass and these are considered in the context of the Kempe window SM1 below.

The William Warrington windows.

One hundred years after the evangelical Revd Samuel Walker, the ritual status of St Mary’s Truro in the 1840’s under the curacy of Revd William Woodes Harvey was completely different. Harvey was a Tractarian, having served as curate to Revd WJ Coope at Falmouth King Charles in the 1830s.417 The stained glass revival in the Church of England that had started in the early 1840s had already reached the Diocese of Exeter418. Stained glass windows were installed by clergy with High Church leanings in a number of Cornish churches in this decade.419 Between 1845 and 1850 a series of windows was designed and inserted in St Mary’s Truro by William Warrington of London, who had already been responsible for a major set of windows at Padstow.420 A large five-light window was placed in the chancel east, with figures of St Simon, St James the Less, Christ with an orb in his hand, St John and St Phillip beneath substantial canopies.421 An illustration of this window appeared in Warrington’s influential book The History of Stained Glass which was published in 1848.422 When the chancel of St Mary’s was demolished in 1880 this stained glass was removed into storage, and in 1892 was inserted into the new custom-made chancel window of St Paul’s parish church, Chacewater, seven miles from Truro.

The remaining Warrington windows were all were reinserted by 1887 into the east and south walls of St Mary’s aisle (then designated the Lady Chapel) in the new cathedral.423 Revd Harvey’s inventory in 1884 stated that all the glass wants re-leading, and is damaged and broken in many places. There is no record which studio was responsible for these re-leadings and repairs, but it is likely in view of the quality of the work, that Clayton and Bell were probably involved at this stage.

The five-light east window of this aisle was originally inserted in 1845, one of a series of eight Warrington windows inserted between 1845 and 1850. It consisted of diaper pattern with cross ribbons and inscriptions. In the upper portion of the central light the sacred monogram and in the upper portions of the other 4 lights the 4 cherubic figures of SS Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. In the centre of the 5 lights are the emblems of the Crucifixion and the sufferings of our Lord.424 Most of this glass was eventually replaced in 1911 (see below).

The six south wall windows SMs27 are all by William Warrington (his signature and date of insertion are at the feet of windows 2 right, 6 left and 7 left). They are typical examples of his use of bold primary colours, strong leading, dramatic design, and heavy painted shading. The subjects, which do not follow in chronological order, embrace the life and teachings of Christ, and were described in the 1884 inventory as:

Window Left Right
SMs2 Taking of Our Lord down from the Cross Our Lord laid in the Sepulchre.
SMs3 Angel announcing the Resurrection The Ascension.
SMs4 Supper at Bethany Visiting the sick.
SMs5 The Raising of Lazarus The Good Samaritan.
SMs6 Suffer little children Raising of Jairus’ daughter.
SMs7 The Pharisee and the Publican The entry into Jerusalem.

The same inventory also records that some lights had their inscriptions broken or were missing.

SMs2 left. Taking of Our Lord down from the Cross. Right: our Lord laid in the Sepulchre.
SMs2 detail. The mark of the window’s maker: W. Warrington London 1850, in the bottom right-hand corner of the right-hand light.
SMs3 left. Angel announcing the Resurrection. Right: the Ascension.
SMs4 left. Supper at Bethany. Right: visiting the sick.
SMs5 left. The Raising of Lazarus. Right: the Good Samaritan.
SMs6 left. Suffer little children. Right: raising of Jairus’ daughter.
SMs7 left. The Pharisee and the Publican. Right: the entry into Jerusalem.

Two further points need to be made about the Warrington windows of the old St Mary’s church. Firstly it was very unusual in parish churches in the 1840s for so many windows (twenty-two lights) to be inserted in such a short period. The use of only one studio for the new windows of St Mary’s established an artistic unity that foreshadowed the eventual glazing of the new cathedral. Although the subject matter of these windows lacked the rigour and chronological detail of Mason’s later scheme, there was a certain unity in its exploration of the gospel narratives. All this suggests that between 1846 and 1850 the various donors were contributing to an agreed scheme, and that the originator of such a scheme was likely to have been Revd WW Harvey.

The second point follows on from this. Stained glass was (and still is) a very expensive medium, affordable to only a very small proportion of the early Victorian society. The donors of St Mary’s windows followed a well-established pattern for that period in that they were all drawn either from local property owners, many of whom were engaged in the mining industry, or the clergy.425 Although the list of donors of the Warrington windows is incomplete, the presence of the Willyams and Daubuz families, and the Revd William Harvey confirms this conclusion.

SM1. The east window.

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

The window was donated by Charlotte Carlyon in memory of Revd Thomas Carlyon, Rector of St Mary’s Truro, 1803–26.426

SM1. In the centre is the Blessed Virgin Mary, flanked by scenes of the Adoration of the Magi and the Presentation at the Temple.

This window is a hybrid, in that it contains glass from three different centuries. As detailed above, this was one of the Warrington windows inserted in the late 1840s, and by the beginning of the twentieth century it must have seemed very old-fashioned in style and subject-matter, more so than the narrative Warrington windows of the south wall. The completion of the final building phase of the cathedral in 1910 afforded the opportunity to replace a substantial proportion of the window. Warrington’s tracery with its angels, texts and decorative patterns was retained, as were the lowest decorative panels at the foot of all five main lights. In 1910 these panels were hidden by the new reredos, donated and executed by Frank Loughborough Pearson. Above the reredos a new window by the Kempe studio was made, its outline and themes ingeniously following that of the reredos below. The window depicts the Blessed Virgin Mary in the centre, flanked by scenes of the Adoration of the Magi and the Presentation at the Temple. Artistically, Kempe’s windows are very different from those of Clayton and Bell’s in the rest of the cathedral. Typically the figures and scenes contain very subdued dark pot metal colours which contrast with his use of white glass and intricate staining patterns for detailed features such as clothes and haloes. The style of painting in the facial features is quite unique to this studio. Kempe’s rebus of a golden wheat sheaf, with the addition of a black tower, is in the left border.427

SM1 fragment. In the foreground is an altar with two candlesticks, and behind is a reredos with Christ on the cross and the Blessed Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene on the left, and St John on the right.

Two pieces of pre-nineteenth century glass were inserted into the Warrington decorative quarries behind the reredos. Behind the right hand reredos panel is an unidentified coat of arms of poor glass, crude repairs and inferior design. Behind the left hand panel however is a piece of Flemish glass probably of the seventeenth century. It shows in the foreground an altar with two candlesticks. Behind is a reredos with Christ on the cross and the Blessed Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene on the left, and St John on the right. The pelican in its piety is in the upper section of the reredos above the cross.428 It is work of high quality and was possibly part of an original roundel that has been cut down.429

The remaining windows of the south wall.

At the time of the consecration of the cathedral in 1887, St Mary’s aisle east window and six of the south windows were filled with William Warrington glass, and the tracery of two more had the fragments of pre-Victorian glass. The six remaining windows were filled with plain glass, and they, of course, were not included in the 1887 Master Plan for the new cathedral. Mason makes one illuminating comment in 1890 when a prospective donor (‘Mr Paddon’) approached Chapter with the offer to fill one of the remaining windows:

Nothing particular occurs to me with regard to Mr Paddon’s window. The series in the parish church is already so irregular that I should almost despair of making a scheme; but perhaps, as they have already introduced Parables, and as Our Lord’s teaching is necessarily little brought out in the Cathedral windows, it might be pleasant to take one or two more parables—the Prodigal Son e.g. Or some other scene in the ministry would be equally suitable, e.g. the Feeding of the 5000. Perhaps it is just as well to have one part of the building where there is a little more latitude …430

Significantly, even at this early date, Mason’s opinion was being sought by Chapter for windows that were outside the Master Scheme. Nothing came of this offer, and a further eight years elapsed before donors appeared with offers to fill the remaining windows of St Mary’s aisle with stained glass. All the new windows were designed and made by Clayton and Bell, but they rarely approached the quality of the windows in the cathedral proper. The basic design was either single full-length figures or a narrative scene spread across both lights, set beneath heavy architectural canopies with small predellas below. Details of the cost of only one of the lancets have survived (left-hand light in SMs8 cost £50 in 1907, which was about half the cost of a lancet in the main cathedral) but one can surmise that the lower cost was a factor in influencing donors to contribute in this aisle rather than in the main cathedral: indeed, in SMs8 and 10 separate donors gave a lancet each in these windows. However, in some cases windows were donated in memory of people who had a particular association with the old St Mary’s church.

SMs8 a

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This was inserted in 1907 by many friends in memory of John Barrett.431

SMs8.

SMs8 a. To the Glory of God and in memory of John Barrett Second warden of the Cathedral Guild of Lay Assistants. This window was erected by many friends 1906.

SMs8 b. In memory of John Harold Llewellyn of Truro and formerly of Neath South Wales Died 22nd May 1957 And of his wife Elizabeth Ann (Nan) Died 25th May 1956.

SMs8. The left-hand light (SMs8 a) was made by Clayton and Bell in 1907; the right-hand light (SMs8 b) was made by AK Nicholson in 1957.

SMs8 2a. I am Alpha and Omega the first and the last (Revelation 1:11). I am he that liveth (Revelation 1:18).

This panel shows the scene described in Revelation 1:10–20. God the Father holds in his left hand an open book pierced by a sword with Alpha and Omega on the pages. In his right hand is a representation of the heavenly firmament, containing seven stars, and in the foreground are seven lighted candlesticks representing the seven sacraments.

SMs8 1a. St John leads the Blessed Virgin Mary away from the foot of the Cross, with two ladders and the base of the cross in the background.

The lancet retells the opening passage of the first chapter of St John’s gospel. The main subject is God the Father holding an open book pierced by a sword with Alpha and Omega on the pages. In his other hand is a representation of the heavenly firmament, and in the foreground are seven lighted candlesticks representing the seven sacraments. Below is a predella scene of St John leading the Blessed Virgin Mary away from the foot of the Cross, with two ladders and the base of the cross in the background.432

SMs9

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

These two lancets were inserted in 1898.433 They were donated by the widow of Alderman William G Barrett of Chapel House, Truro.

SMs9. To the Glory of God and in loving memory of William Barrett of Chapel House Truro. At rest . This window is placed by his widow.

SMs9 tracery. Holy, Holy, Holy.

Angels.

SMs9 2a. Christ raises his hand to prevent Mary Magdalene touching him. SMs9 2b. Mary Magdalene about to touch Christ.

SMs9 2a and SMs9 2b. Touch me not I am not yet ascended (John 20:17).

Christ raises his hand, showing his stigmata (wounds from the Crucifixion), to prevent Mary Magdalene touching him. Mary has a pot of ointment at her feet.

SMs9 1a. I ascend unto my Father and your Father and to my God and your God (John 20:17).

SMs9 1b. I ascend unto my Father and your Father and to my God and your God (John 20:17).

The main scene is ‘Noli me tangere’—Christ in the Garden after the resurrection. In reaching out to prevent Mary from touching him, his wounds are revealed on his hands. Mary Magdalene has a pot of ointment at her feet. The not very inspired predellas below show two angels carrying inscribed scrolls.

SMs10

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

These two lancets were inserted in 1899. The left lancet is dedicated to Mrs E Heard with her children Clara and John, and the right lancet is dedicated to Mr R Andrews and his children Richard and Esther.434

SMs10. In memory of Mrs E Heard of this Parish died 10th September 1867 aged 80 years, her daughter Clara Isabella died 17th January 1841 and her son John McFarland died 18th March 1858.

In memory of R Andrews of this Parish died November 1880 and of his son Richard died 1858 also of his daughter Esther Elizabeth died 1864.

SMs10 tracery. IHS monogram.

SMs10 2a. James and John in a fishing boat with their father Zebedee. SMs10 2b. Christ summons James and John.

SMs10 2a and SMs10 2b. Christ summons James and John, who are in a fishing boat with their father Zebedee.

SMs10 2a lower. An angel holding a banner. SMS10 2b lower. An angel holding a banner.

SMs10 2a lower and SMs10 2b lower. Illi autem statim relictis retibus et patre, secuti sunt eum (And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him) Matthew 4:22.

SMs10 1a. Hic est Filius Meus dilectus in quo Mihi complacui (This is My beloved Son in, whom I am well pleased) Matthew 3:17.

John the Baptist baptises Christ, with an attendant angel.

SMs10 1b. Dom(ine) da mihi hanc aq(u)am ut non sitiam (Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not) John 4:15.

Christ with the woman at Jacob’s well in Samaria.

The scenes are all concerned with the symbolism of water in Christ’s mission, and lead directly the baptistry area at the end of the aisle, SMs14. The main scene across both lights is Christ summoning the fishermen. Beneath are two predellas showing the Baptism of Christ with an attendant angel, and Christ with the woman at Jacob’s well in Samaria.

SMs11

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

These two lancets were inserted between 1900 and 1907. They are dedicated to Catherine Dickson and her children Catherine, Frances and George.435

SMs11. In memory of Catherine Dickson of this Parish died , and of Catherine her daughter—.
and of Frances her daughter— also of George her son .

The Sermon on the Mount The Sermon on the Mount

SMs11 2a and SMs11 2b. The Sermon on the Mount.

An angel holding a scroll An angel holding a scroll

SMs11 2a lower and SMs11 2b lower. Beati qui esuriunt et sitiunt iustitiam quoniam ipsi saturabuntur (Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled) (Matthew 5:6).

SMs11 1a. Ecce exiit qui seminat seminare (Behold, a sower went forth to sow) (Matthew 13:3).

The Parable of the Sower: the sower casts seed on good soil, with a rustic church in the background.

SMs11 1b. Alia autem ceciderunt in terram bonam. (But other fell into good ground) (Matthew 13:8).

The Parable of the Sower: the reaper harvests a good crop, with a city dominated by church towers and steeples in the background.

The main scene is the Sermon on the Mount, and the two predellas below show two scenes of the Parable of the Sower—the sower broadcasting the seed on good soil, and the reaper harvesting a good crop. The backgrounds comments on the results of this action: a rustic church in the first scene is replaced by a major city dominated by church towers and steeples in the second.

SMs14

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

The window was donated by George and Miss Heard in memory of their parents Edward and Eliza Goodridge Heard and was inserted in 1902.436

This five-light window is the largest in the south wall of the aisle, Incidentally, the epitaph to the dedicatee is worth placing within the social context of the final years of the Victorian Age: He was a good son, a good husband, a good father, a good Citizen and a good master.

Each light shows a main figure above a related predella, and all are connected by the imagery and symbolism of water. This was, and still is, the baptistry area for the old parish church, and it is not surprising that Mason was directly involved in the window design.437 Its typological structure, contrasting Old and New Testament figures and events, relates directly to those in the cathedral’s baptistry vestibule (s1315).

SMs14. Noah holding a model of the Ark, Moses and two tablets of the Commandments, St John the Baptist, St Peter and St Philip.
SMs14 1a. Noah and his wife supervising the entry of animals into the Ark.

In the first light, Noah, holding a model of the Ark and a leaf to represent the one the dove brought back to the Ark, is placed above a scene with Noah, his wife and sons supervising the entry of the animals (including giraffe and lion) into the Ark. In the second, Moses is shown carrying the two tablets of the Ten Commandments above a scene of the water flowing from the smitten rock. These two Old Testament lights are the prelude to the central lancet which shows St John the Baptist above the scene of the Baptism of Christ. The biblical chronology now moves on in the last two lights to St Peter holding his keys and a clasped book above a scene of his baptism of Cornelius. Finally, St Philip holding a scallop shell is shown above a scene of his baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch, whose chariot and horse are in the background.

SMs8 b. The Nicholson window.

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

In 1957, donors proposed to give a window in memory of John Harold Llewellyn of Truro and formerly of Neath, South Wales, and of his wife Elizabeth Ann (Nan). The window was inserted in 1959.438

After the last window was inserted in 1911 before the outbreak of the First World War, the main lights of SMs11 and SMs12 and the right-hand light of SMs8 were still glazed with plain glass. The studio of AK Nicholson was approached to produce a window that would match in artistic style the other Clayton and Bell lights in St Mary’s aisle and would complement the iconography of the existing left-hand light SMs8 a of 1907.

SMs8 2b. I John saw these things and heard them (Revelation 22:8).

St John the Evangelist, holding a book and quill pen and, at his feet, his emblem of an eagle.

SMs8 1b. Annunciation to the Virgin Mary.

The attempt to match the Clayton and Bell style was remarkably successful, and most viewers today accept without question that the light is pre First World War. Closer inspection however reveals some significant differences in the range of colours and the style of glass painting between the two lights in this window. Already there was pre-nineteenth century glass in the upper panel of the window (see above). The main figure is St John the Evangelist, holding a book and quill pen, with his emblem of an eagle at his feet. The scrolled inscription above his head says I John saw these things and heard them. The predella subject is a puzzle. It shows a very medieval scene of a kneeling female with a crown being serenaded by a youthful figure playing a lyre. Placing it in the context of both lights, it seems that this is meant to be an Annunciation to the Virgin Mary (notice her startled body language). It directly connects with the corresponding predella scene in the left light of St John taking Mary into his care after the Crucifixion, and relates to the predellas in s2 (Chapter 6).

Despite Mason’s sense of despair in having no ideas on how to order and unify the post-1887 windows, there is some artistic and thematic unity to the windows of this aisle. Once again, there is no evidence of potential donors taking exception to paying for Clayton and Bell products rather than selecting a studio of their own choice. It appears that Mason’s suggestion of introducing parables as Our Lord’s teaching is necessarily little brought out in the Cathedral windows was heeded, so a thematic, if not artistic, unity with the already inserted William Warrington windows on the south wall was established after all. Mason also was able to devise a typical typological scheme for the Baptistry area window. The Nicholson window was the last window to be inserted in Truro Cathedral to date. Except for the pre-nineteenth century fragments in their tracery, the windows SMs11 and SMs12 remain plain glass today.

References

  1. J Polsue (Polsue), A Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, vol 4, p 250. William Lake, Truro, 1872.
  2. HMB 1 p. 4.
  3. HMB 1 p. 15. CCRO DTC/P/41 : a ground-plan of the proposed cathedral showing the superimposed outlines of the building with and without the retention of St Mary’s aisle. The comments around the margins of the plan suggest this was presented to the Executive Committee in 1879 when the final decision on the retention of the aisle was made.
  4. HMB 1, p. 17. Fisher Barham : Creation of a Cathedral. Falmouth, 1976, p 20. Early on this Monday morning, over 100 people took communion before the wedding of Joseph Cock of Truro and Emily Dyer of Perranzabuloe.
  5. Fisher Barham, p 20. For the next seven years, 1880–87, cathedral services were held in Truro’s second cathedral, a temporary wooden building on the site of the nave of the future cathedral. It was furnished with many fitments from the old church, and Benson’s Nine Lessons and Carols was first held there on 24th December, 1880.
  6. J Polsue, op. cit. vol 4, p 250.
  7. J Polsue, op. cit. vol 4, p 253.
  8. J Polsue, op. cit. vol 4, p 251.
  9. J Mattingly and MG Swift Pre-Dissolution stained glass in Cornwall, originally published in Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi journal Vidimus Vol. 31, July 2009.
  10. HMB 2: pp. 4, 27.
  11. The Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society was one of the first of its kind to be formed in the country. Transactions of the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society, Volume 2, 1846, p. 114 shows that of 272 members, twenty had Cornish addresses.
  12. TRUROSEE wdb. In addition to St Mary’s Truro, other notable 1840s stained glass windows in Cornwall were inserted at Falmouth, Padstow, Madron and Maramchurch. The most complete set was at the new church at St Paul’s Penzance, 1843, where the Tractarian Revd Henry Batten paid for both the church and the windows that were designed by Thomas Willement.
  13. Most of St Petroc, Padstow had been glazed with glass donated by the Prideaux-Brune family in the 1840s.
  14. CCRO TCM/1275 Letter from Truro Rectory (Rev Harvey) to Mr JC Daubuz (Carvedras Smelting Works, St Georges Road) 8th October, 1884. A photograph of the window in situ is in HMB 1: p. 9.
  15. Boreham The story of the windows of Truro Cathedral, undated, published 1966–72, p. 10.
  16. CCRO TCM/53 Executive Committee minutes 15th February 1885 records the Cathedral taking responsibility for the St Mary glass. CCRO TCM/1275 Letter from Truro Rectory (Rev Harvey) to Mr JC Daubuz (Carvedras Smelting Works, St Georges Road) 8th October, 1884 refers to Swaine (Robert Swaine, clerk of works) has taken the windows out of their cases and sends the list below. CCRO TCM/53 Executive Committee minutes 26th May 1887, windows reinserted.
  17. CCRO TCM/1275 Letter from Truro Rectory (Rev Harvey) to Mr JC Daubuz (Carvedras Smelting Works, St Georges Road) 8th October, 1884. This window is shown in situ in a watercolour by J Van Hacht Interior of St Mary’s Truro 1865 at the Royal Cornwall Museum, reference TRURI: 1000.467.
  18. Michael Swift Anglican stained glass in Cornwall and its social context, originally published in The Royal Institution of Cornwall Journal, 2009, pp. 14–25.
  19. PNH Collins (ed) The Corpus of Kempe Stained Glass in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Crosby, 2000, p. 47 (Ref COR 18.1). TDK 1912, p. 156. TDM 1911, p. 135.
  20. In his later life Charles Eamer Kempe often signed his window with a wheatsheaf. On his death the studio was taken over by his nephew Walter Tower, who added the black tower to the rebus. The tower was the family emblem of the Tower family, and appeared in Kempe’s 1879 windows for the new church of St Nicholas, Tresco, Isles of Scilly. This church was paid for by Miss Sophia Tower.
  21. CCRO TCM/1275 This detail is included in the 1884 inventory.
  22. In Cornwall, such roundels are to be found in the chapel and Chevy Chase room at St Michael Mount, see W Cole A catalogue of Netherlandish and North European Roundels in Britain, Oxford, 1993, pp. 242–246. There is also a series of North European roundels inserted in the nave windows of the parish church at Pendeen, West Penwith, Cornwall, see Michael Swift The roundels of Pendeen Church, originally published in Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi journal Vidimus Vol. 36, February 2010.
  23. CCRO TCM/1049/1 Letter from Canon Mason 6th November 1890 (7. Trinity Square) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  24. Truro Diocesan Faculty 1907 (TDK 1908: p. 162), cost £50. John Barrett was the second Warden of the Cathedral Guild of Lay Assistants. Insertion of SMs8 a WB & CA 1907-01-03 p 3.
  25. This panel makes an interesting contrast with the same scene in s2 (Chapter 6).
  26. CCRO TCM/1172 Canon Worlledge’s archive p. 139—14th December, 1898. Insertion reported in RCG 1898-12-15 p 5. Death of dedicatee reported in Cornishman 1896-02-20 p 5. Offer of window reported in Cornishman 1898-11-10 p 7.
  27. Truro Cathedral inventory, manufacturer and insertion.
  28. Truro Cathedral inventory, manufacturer and insertion.
  29. TDM 1902, p. 36. Insertion reported RCG p 2 and Cornish Telegraph 1902-01-08 p 3. Donors were Messrs George and Edward Heard and Miss Heard, dedicatees their parents Alderman and Mrs Heard.
  30. CCRO TCM/1134 Residentiary Chapter Minute Book—10th April, 1901 approval of design on AJ Mason’s recommendation.
  31. Stained Glass windows and Master Glass Painters 1930–1972 (1961 Directory of the British Society of Master Glass Painters) Bristol, 2003, p. 72, also TDF 14th July, 1959.