Chapter 12 The nave windows: the church history sequence (3)

The series is continued with … the mediæval ages of the Church, the reformation period, representing the missionary labours of modern times, the worthies of the latter English Church, poets, apologists, evangelists, missionaries, pastors, concluding with the figure of Edward White Benson, first Bishop of the restored See, and founder of the Cathedral. (1887 Master Scheme)300

Architectural Context

The Church History sequence now concludes with the twenty-one lancet windows in the nave aisles. To follow the scheme chronologically, the recommended route moves alternately from north aisle bay to south aisle bay and back. Each bay contains two lancets, except for the last in the south aisle. This unusual arrangement is to ensure that the final window, showing Bishop Benson and the laying of the cathedral’s foundation stone, is positioned nearest to the western door. The Master Scheme envisaged that this foundation stone scene would be the first window to be seen on entering the cathedral, and the last on exiting. This sequence has twenty-one narrative predellas and sixty-one historical figures, with two allegorical representations in the final lancet.

Theological interpretation

As shown in Chapter 3, the nave sequence evolved from the original 1887 Master Scheme through a series of versions over a period of fifteen years, until the final scheme in 1902. In one illuminating letter Mason actually gave a title to most of his ‘speaking groups’ in the nave aisles at that particular stage in the process in 1896.301 As with the previous sections of the Church History sequence, the theological and historical significance of each ‘speaking group’ is read by considering the three personages chosen, the relationships between them, and the clues presented in the predella scene below.

n22. North Nave aisle north 1: Saints Theodore of Tarsus, Aidan and Wilfrid

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

The first lancet in the nave sequence was inserted in 1903. It was donated by Kenneth H. James in memory of his grandparents Walter and Ursula James.302

n22 suffers from the same practical problems as n5 in the north quire aisle, in that the lack of direct light for this north-facing window is exacerbated by shadow cast by the north transept; consequently this lancet always appears very dark and indistinct.

Mason identified the unifying theme of this ‘speaking group’ as the consolidation of the English Church.303 The final figure in the previous lancet in the north transept (n21) was St Augustine, with the theme of the establishment of the Roman rite at Canterbury. It is therefore logical, as the theme of this window is one of consolidation of the English Church, that St Theodore (d. 690) is the dominant figure in this group. He is portrayed vested in archiepiscopal robes and mitre. His right hand holds a pastoral staff whilst his left hand and arm support a small portative organ. Theodore was consecrated by Pope Vitalian, who was widely recognised as being responsible for introducing the use of the organ in Western liturgy. Theodore was an Asiatic Greek educated at Tarsus and Athens. He was sent to England in 668 to reorganise the English Church. He was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury and was a great scholar, administrator and theologian. He called together the first two Synods of the whole English Church at Hertford in 673 and at Hatfield in 680.304 He divided the dioceses and extended the episcopate. His work was to unify the English Church and to establish the metro-political authority of the See of Canterbury.

This theme of consolidation is reinforced in the predella scene showing the Council of Hatfield. At the centre is the fully vested figure of Theodore on an Episcopal throne with a pastoral staff in his right hand. On either side of the throne are four ecclesiastical figures, gathered around a table upon which is placed an open book. This symbolises the way in which Scottish, Roman and Burgundian missions were organised into dioceses to form one English Church three hundred years before the various Kingdoms came together to form one English nation.

n22 bottom left. St Aidan.

The other two figures in the group focus attention on the development and subsequent consolidation of the church in Northern England. On the left St Aidan (d. 651) is shown wearing a monastic habit and sandals. His right hand and arm support a closed book with a Celtic design on the cover. At his right is a stag, which he traditionally saved from hunters by making it invisible.305 He was sent from Iona where he was a monk, at the request of Oswald the King of Northumbria, to be a missionary to re-establish Christianity in Northumbria. He was consecrated Bishop of Lindisfarne in 635, and taught the practices of the Celtic Church.

To the right is St Wilfrid (643–709), wearing Bishop’s vestments including a mitre. Propped against the right of his body is a richly decorated closed book. Wilfrid represents one who was educated at Lindisfarne but who became dissatisfied with the Celtic way of religious life and went to Canterbury to study the Roman way. As a strong advocate of Papal authority he later did much to bring about the replacement of Celtic usages in the North by the Roman liturgy.

n23. North Nave aisle north 2: Venerable Bede, Alcuin, John of Damascus

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

When the first phase of the building of Truro cathedral came to an end with the completion of the quire and transepts in 1887, one bay of the nave was built for structural reasons. In 1895 lancet n23 was inserted in the completed north nave bay. The dedicatees were Friends and Masonic Brethren of Cornwall, so one can only assume that they chose to use this bay rather than one of the remaining quire windows as a statement of act and faith that rebuilding would commence in the near future and the nave would be completed. It must be remembered that Masonic ritual and regalia played a significant part during the laying of the foundation stones by the Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall in 1887 (the predella to n33).306 The window was donated in memory of Thomas Chirgwin, Mayor of Truro, and a prominent Cornish Mason.307

So after a sequence of sixteen windows, the Church History sequence has reached the eighth century. Together with the three windows in the north transept and the preceding window, n23 is the fifth and final lancet in a sequence devoted to the origins of the Christian Church in Cornwall and England. The 1887 Master scheme would have extended this even further if the proposed group of Saints Hilda, Giles and Etheldreda had been included.

Mason’s title for this ‘speaking group’ was the Transmission of Learning.308 The dominance of the Venerable Bede (673–735) in this group is therefore self-explanatory. He is portrayed wearing a monastic habit; his left hand holds his book ‘The Ecclesiastical History of the English People’, whilst his right holds a quill. The Venerable Bede was the greatest light in the Church in Northumbria. He was the father of English history and scholarship; a learned and voluminous writer who became famous for his learning during his lifetime. He was a monk at Jarrow and visited Lindisfarne and York, but it seems unlikely that he went outside Northumbria. He died in 735 and in the eleventh century his bones were transferred to Durham Cathedral. The predella scene below of his death reinforces the veneration in which he was held.

n23. Alcuin and St John of Damascus.

The seated left-hand figure represents Alcuin (740–804), wearing a monastic habit, his left knee supports a book of Bede’s work (Baedae Opera). Alcuin was a scholar, statesman and linguist. He was educated at the Cathedral school in York, becoming its master in 766. In 781 he met Charlemagne at Palma and became his adviser in religious and educational matters. The idea of reviving the Roman Empire was probably due to him, and his ideas continued to make a deep impression through to the Middle Ages.

The figure seated to the right represents St John of Damascus (660–749), clothed in a monastic habit girdled at the centre, and a cowl over his head. His hands grasp his book De Fide Orthodoxa. John of Damascus was a Greek theologian and writer, and a standard authority of the Eastern Church. In particular, he was a strong defender of the right of the Church to carve or paint images of Our Lord and of the Saints, as opposed to the Jewish and Islamic iconoclasm.309 He wrote three discourses on the subject between 726 and 730.

The Venerable Bede rightly dominates this last in the series of five lancets on the origins of the English church, whilst the inclusion of Alcuin and John of Damascus reintroduces the European and Eastern dimension to the Church History narrative. This now becomes the subject of the next two lancets, and to follow the Church History sequence chronologically the recommended route now crosses to the south aisle, where the theme of the development of European Christianity is resumed.

s16. South Aisle south 1: Saints Boniface, Columbanus and Methodius

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This lancet, together with s17, was inserted in 1912. They were almost the last to be inserted before the onset of the First World War, and were donated by friends and kinsfolk in memory of Bishop William and Mary Collins.310 The two lancets commemorate Bishop Collins’ Episcopal work and his labours in the field of ecclesiastical history.311

William Collins was Bishop of Gibraltar at his death. Ten years earlier, as a curate at All Hallows Barking and Professor of Church History at King’s College London, he had played an important part in the earlier modifications of the 1887 Master Scheme whilst he was resident at Trinity Square, Canon Mason’s London address (Chapter 3).

The subject matter in this lancet remained unaltered from the 1887 Master Scheme, where it was placed later in the sequence. Mason’s title for the ‘speaking group’ was Early Medieval Missions.312 The figures embrace three centuries, represent three different traditions of Christianity, and were active in three distinct areas of Europe. Mason’s relocation of this window to the first in the south aisle continues the theme of Mission that was the main subject of the Celtic Saints and Henry Martyn windows of the Baptistry immediately adjacent to this window.

s16 main scene. Saints Boniface, Columbanus and Methodius. The title of St Methodius’ book is written in Glagolitic, the liturgical form of Slavonic devised by him and his brother St Cyril.

St Boniface (675–754) is the main standing figure. He is portrayed wearing a monastic habit. In his right hand he has a pastoral staff created by a pole with a cross lashed to it, whilst his left hand holds a bible with a sword thrust through it. The symbolism of cross, book and sword are crucially important in his story. Boniface was born in England. He was called Winfrid until Pope Gregory gave him the name Boniface. A monk from Crediton, Devon, he was the Apostle to Germany, where he showed great courage in dealing with the pagans. The most famous incident is depicted in the vigorous predella scene, which shows Boniface cutting down the oak sacred to the pagans at Greismer. This won him instant success in demonstrating the lack of power of the pagan gods, and led to him being able to lay the foundations of the settled ecclesiastical organisation in Germany. His personal devotion to the Papacy did much to extend the Papal influence north of the Alps. He became Bishop of Mainz, but maintained his missionary life, dying a martyr at the hands of pagans. The figure of the saint in this window is to some extent copied from his statue at Fulda, and as a small footnote it should be noted that Boniface’s birthplace, Crediton in Devon, played an important part in the development of the Cornish Church (Leofric in n24).

s16 predella. Boniface cutting down the oak.

The figure seated to the left represents St Columbanus (c 543–615) with a Celtic tonsure, wearing a monastic habit, cloak and sandals. He holds a crook in his right hand. Columbanus was born in Ireland, a scholar and missionary to Burgundy and other Alpine regions. He aroused much opposition by introducing the usages of the Celtic Church. He was the founder of a centre of learning at the monastery of Bobbia in Northern Italy, and is generally reckoned to be the greatest of Ireland’s many apostles to continental Europe.313

The figure seated to the right represents St Methodius (815–885), wearing the episcopal vestments of the Eastern orthodox church including the Eastern mitre or crown, with a heavy gold pectoral cross around his neck. A book held by his left hand rests upon his knees. Methodius was Saint, artist and linguist: the Apostle to the Slavs. He was educated with his brother St Cyril in Constantinople, before the division of the Eastern and Western Churches. They translated the Bible and liturgical texts to Slavonic. After the death of Cyril, Methodius was made a Bishop, a step which aroused the opposition of the German Bishops.

The window depicts three missionary priests of different traditions, who played major parts in re-establishing Christianity in the ‘Dark Ages’ after the fall of Rome. Boniface has the dominant position over the other two by virtue of his role in Germany and in the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire (shown in the next lancet). Columbanus and Methodius continue the narratives of Celtic and Eastern Christianity that were in the preceding windows in the quire and north transept, and which now cease to be part of the Church History sequence. From now on, the sequence concentrates upon the development of the Church in western Europe, England and Cornwall.

s17. South Nave aisle south 2: Charles the Great, St Olaf and Alfred

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This is the second of a pair of lancets inserted in 1912 in memory of Bishop Collins (see s16) and continues to develop the themes of the earlier window.

The featured group of three remained unaltered from the 1887 Master Scheme, although there they were placed later in the sequence. Mason identified this ‘speaking group’ as Imperial and Royal Patronage.314

s17 main scene. Charles the Great, St Olaf and Alfred

The central standing figure is Charlemagne, wearing chain mail, surcoat and cloak, and crowned with a circlet. His right hand rests upon the hilt of a sheathed sword; his left holds a crowned orb. Charlemagne, otherwise known as Charles the Great of France, Italy and Germany, was born in 724. In addition to being a great soldier and military leader he was a diligent patron of the Church and of learning. He brought consistency, reform and uniformity to his government at home by introducing a strong central administration. Similarly he carried out many reforms and improvements in the Church. In 800 he was crowned, on Christmas Day, as the first ‘Holy Roman Emperor’ by Pope Leo Ⅲ, and this is shown in the predella scene below.315 This event presented a challenge to the Eastern Empire, with whom relations were strained for the rest of his life. However the date of his coronation marks the transition from ‘The Dark Ages’, which followed the collapse of the Old Roman Empire in the West (it survived in the East until 1453), to the ‘Middle Ages’ in which modern Europe was born. This accounts for his dominant position in the group, the other two being figures of more localised importance.

The figure seated to the left represents Olaf (c995–1030), King of Norway from 1016–1029 and the patron Saint of Norway. Olaf is shown crowned, wearing chain mail and a cloak. His left hand holds an upright sword with its tip placed in the ground, while his right holds a shield bearing a crucifix. He had fought with the Danes in England and there had been converted to Christianity. When he returned to Norway in 1015 he defeated Earl Sweyn and became King. At this time many of those who had fought in France and England had become Christians. Their leaders were also converted and saw nothing wrong in forcing through compulsory evangelisation on all their subjects. This is emphasised by his representation in chain mail with sword and shield. However, Olaf’s fierce methods were resisted and he was forced to flee to Russia in 1029, where he died in battle the following year.

The figure seated to the right represents King Alfred (846–899), shown crowned and clothed in tunic and cloak. His right arm supports a sceptre while his left supports a model of a Viking long-ship. In 871 he became King of Wessex, and from the beginning was indefatigable in his efforts to free his people from the ravages of the Norsemen and to reconstruct the civilization they had destroyed. He is portrayed holding a sceptre of kingship, whilst the model of a Viking long-ship is the symbol of his enemy. He himself was a scholar. He gathered round him a band of scholars, and between them they translated many notable Latin works. He tried to carry out religious reform, founding several monastic communities. He is remembered as one who did his utmost to make all his people Christian and to educate his clergy and nobility.

The recommended route now crosses to the north nave aisle. After a pair of lancets which have taken a very broad look at European Christianity, King Alfred provides the transition to the next window which concentrates on England and, in particular, the development of the Church in Cornwall.

n24. North Nave aisle north 3: Edward the Confessor, Leofric and Kenstec

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n24 was inserted in 1903, donated by Henry Charles James in memory of his wife Elizabeth Jane James.316

Mason’s title for this ‘speaking group’ was Cornish incorporation.317 By 1896 Mason had refined this group from the original 1887 Master Scheme, where Edward was the dominant figure with Saints Neot and Aldhelm. This new grouping avoided the inclusion of another Cornish saint: the Cornish saints had already figured prominently in the north transept sequence (n13, n14). So, the theme of this lancet became the assimilation of the earlier Celtic Cornish church into the mainstream Canterbury-based Roman tradition.

n24. Edward and his queen enthroning Leofric.

Edward the Confessor (1003–1066), King and Saint, was educated in Normandy and was more of a Norman than a Saxon. His political philosophy was that England needed help from abroad if it was not to lag behind in the political and religious revival that was beginning in Europe after the turmoil and distress of the struggle with the Norsemen. He was mostly occupied in religious matters and, in particular, with the building of Westminster Abbey, which was consecrated late in 1065. This combination of royalty and religion is reflected in this portrayal where he is shown crowned, wearing royal robes with a fur collar and a chain around his neck bearing a cross. His left hand holds a sceptre surmounted by a fleur de lys and crown, whilst his right hands holds a ring. This is a reference to the legend of his meeting with a beggar. As Edward had no money with him, the beggar received a gold ring, which eventually was presented to two English pilgrims in the Holy Land.

To the right is the figure of Kenstec (dates unknown). He was the Bishop of the Cornish Church who first acknowledged the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury in 833 and thus brought Cornwall into closer contact with the English church.318 He is shown wearing a monastic habit girdled at the waist; he holds a crozier in his left hand whilst his right hand holds a scroll which incorporated his diocese into the authority of Canterbury.

The group is completed by Leofric (1016–1072), who was the first Bishop of Exeter when the seat of the diocese was moved from Crediton. Exeter had been a fortified city from the time of the Romans and so was safer from attacks by raiders than an open township like Crediton. He is shown wearing Bishop’s vestments including mitre and gloves, his robes embellished with a jewelled morse and orphreys. His right hand and shoulder support a crozier, whilst his left knee and hand support a closed book.

This incorporation of the Cornish church into the English tradition is shown in the predella which depicts King Edward and his Queen enthroning Leofric. The King is central, with Leofric, in Bishop’s vestments excluding mitre, placed between the royal couple. They clasp his hands and lead him towards the Episcopal throne. Between 1896 and 1902, an alternative subject for the predella had been proposed, but Mason’s reply shows how important it was to him that the connection between the main figure and the predella scene be maintained. The predella ought by rights to have reference to the main figure in the window. I think we had better revert to the Confessor enthroning Leofric.319 Thus the narrative of the emergence of the Cornish church in the north transept windows (Chapter 11) is completed with its final incorporation into the national church under the authority of Rome.

n25. North Nave aisle north 4: Saints Bernard, Francis and Dominic

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n25 was also inserted in 1903 in memory of Henry Charles James in accordance with his wishes when he donated n24.320

The chronology for the nave sequence now moves forward over a century. Local Cornish themes are again replaced by broad European movements. Mason’s title for this group was Medieval monasticism321 and this was one of the windows from the 1887 Master Scheme whose subjects remained unaltered322, although it is placed later in the sequence to allow for the earlier window on Cornish incorporation. This window depicts the major founders of religious orders in the 12th and 13th centuries, and is a continuation from the last lancet of the north quire aisle which depicted St Benedict (n12).

St Bernard (1090–1153) of Clairvaux in Burgundy was a great theologian, statesman and saint. He was one of the most influential religious figures in Europe, and founded the Cistercian order. He was above all else a monk and it was his saintliness rather than his intellect which made him so powerful. He preached the second crusade to rescue the Holy Land from the Moslems. He is shown bearded and barefooted, wearing a Cistercian habit. His right holds a crozier whilst his left holds up his book de Consideratione, in which he advocated that reform of the church should start with the sanctity of the Pope.

n25. St Francis of Assisi.

St Francis of Assisi (1181–1226) was born into a rich family, but became dissatisfied with his worldly life and determined to devote his life to prayer and the service of the poor. He founded the Franciscans as an order of itinerant preachers. He was a great lover of Christ and man, and all God’s creatures. He was generous, devoted and humble. He is also portrayed bearded and barefooted, wearing a habit of his order girdled at the waist. His right hand holds a cross, whilst his left hand, showing clearly his stigmata, supports a bird. Five other birds are also featured, a reference to the tradition of Saint Francis preaching to the birds.

St Dominic (1170–1221) was a Spaniard of a noble family. He founded an order of preachers, who were especially trained to combat doctrinal errors. He showed heroic sanctity, great courage and humility, and refused a bishopric three times. He is shown clean-shaven, wearing a habit of his order girdled at the waist with a Latin cross at the ends. His left hand holds a spray of lilies and a star is placed above his head in the centre of his nimbus.

The dominance of St Bernard in this speaking group is an acknowledgement that his order was the earliest of the medieval monastic orders. One must not forget the great contribution of the Cistercian foundations in England, unlike the Franciscans and Dominicans who embraced apostolic poverty.323 The predella shows him preaching to the second crusade. The saint is featured at the centre of a wooden podium his right hand holding a pastoral staff and his left raised in declamation. Beside him is the bearded, crowned figure of Louis Ⅶ wearing a cloak covered in crosses. In the foreground are four male figures, one in chain mail and tabard bearing the cross. This scene therefore reinforces the theme of the involvement of the whole monastic movement in larger affairs of politics and state, and in particular the extension of western Christendom eastwards to the Holy Land.

The chronological recommended route now returns to the south nave aisle and the development of western European theology and religious culture in the early Middle Ages.

s18. South Nave aisle south 3: St Anselm, Duns Scotus and St Thomas Aquinas

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This lancet was inserted in 1908, donated by G. Stopford Sackville of Drayton Manor, Northants, in memory of his wife Mrs. Stopford Sackville who died at Point Neptune, Fowey in 1907. She was the daughter of William Rashleigh of Menabilly.324

Mason’s title for this ‘speaking group’ was Scholasticism325, and this was one of the lancets from the 1887 Master Scheme that remained unaltered. The three figures cover the period from the 11th to the 13th centuries, and were all renowned for their contributions to Christian theological writing.

St Anselm (1033–1109), portrayed in Bishop’s vestments, became the 36th Archbishop of Canterbury. After an undisciplined early life he joined the great Abbey of Bec, taking his vows in 1060. The Prior at the time was Lanfranc who became the 35th Archbishop of Canterbury. Anselm was a notable teacher and spiritual leader. He became Abbot at Bec in 1078, and when Lanfranc died in 1089 the English clergy wished him to become Archbishop. He introduced many reforms into the church: he encouraged regular synods, enforced celibacy and suppressed the slave trade. Under Henry Ⅰ he settled the question of investiture some seventeen years before it was settled abroad. He also wrote many works of lasting scholarship.

s18 main scene. Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas.

Of the three figures in this group representing medieval scholasticism, St Anselm is probably the least known, yet Mason placed him in the dominant position. The predella once again provides the clue for this decision. The scene shows St Anselm remonstrating with William Rufus, who tyrannically tried to use the great power in the Church and State left by his father William the Conqueror. Anselm, in Bishop’s vestments but excluding a mitre, stands before King William Rufus in an attitude of confrontation. The crowned monarch is seated on his throne, a downward pointed sword held in his right hand. William Rufus would not consent to Anselm becoming Archbishop unless he agreed to compromise the spiritual rights of the Church. Anselm refused and was forced to leave the country in 1097. Rufus died in 1100 and Anselm was able to return and resume his position. So, although Anselm’s inclusion in the group is an acknowledgement of the significance of his scholarly contributions, Mason was anxious also to give prominence to his role in defining the relationship between Church and State in the development of English Christianity. However, in doing so the overall theme of scholasticism for the lancet has, as in the earlier monasticism lancet (n25), attained an extra layer of meaning. The religious dimension is now located in a wider social and political context. It is interesting that in the 1887 Master Plan the next window was to have included St Thomas of Canterbury (dropped from the scheme in the 1896 version), where the same theme of state and church conflict would have occurred.

Scholasticism is reasserted with the other two figures in the group. On the left Duns Scotus is shown wearing a Franciscan habit, his left hand holding a bible. John Duns Scotus (1264–1308) was a Franciscan and a great theologian. He was the chief of the realist school of mediaeval philosophy and believed that the will was the chief factor in religion. Little is known of his early life except that he was born at Maxton near Roxburgh and that he was a popular teacher at Oxford, Paris and Cologne universities. He died suddenly in Cologne in 1308. The word ‘dunce’ is a survival from Duns Scotus as it was later applied as a term of derision to his followers by those who disagreed with his views.

St Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) is shown tonsured and clean-shaven, clothed in a Dominican habit with a star on the breast. He is depicted reading a book held by both hands, his left hand also holding a small horn. He was born in Italy and was related to the Emperor and the King of France. He became a Dominican in 1244 and a lecturer at the University of Paris, producing a vast number of theological works, amongst which the Summa Theologica is the most important. The Roman Catholic Church bases its official doctrine on the teaching of St Thomas. He died in 1274 on his way to the Council of Lyons.

s19. South Nave aisle south 4: Dante, Giotto and Innocent Ⅲ

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This was the last lancet to be inserted before the First World War. It was donated in 1913 by Mrs. Field in memory of her husband Colonel Thomas Willis Field of Chymorvah, Marazion.326

With the insertion of this window in 1913, the only lancets left to be filled with stained glass in the main body of the cathedral were n28 and n29, and this was not accomplished for another twenty-five years. Mason’s title for this ‘speaking group’ was Art327, thus marking a major departure from the main religious themes of the scheme so far by including the central position of Christianity in the related fields of literature and the Fine Arts.

s19 lower. Giotto.

To this end the selection of Dante as the dominant figure comes as no surprise, considering the influence of the ‘Divine Comedy’ on succeeding generations. Dante (1265–1321) was a Florentine and the greatest of the mediaeval poets. Little is known of his early life except that he was educated by the Dominicans, and fell in love with Beatrice. In 1301 he became involved in the dissensions which split Florence into two parties. He supported the anti-papal faction and in consequence his property was confiscated and he was exiled. He finally settled in Ravenna in 1315. The last years of his life were devoted to the completion of his greatest work. He is shown standing with a laurel crown upon his head. His left hand holds a copy of the ‘Divine Comedy’. The predella below shows the opening scene of the book where Virgil in a toga with a laurel wreath on his head starts to guide Dante on his journey through hell and purgatory. Behind Dante stand a lion, panther and she-wolf.

s19 predella. Dante’s meeting with Virgil.

Seated to Dante’s right is Giotto, dressed in a robe and embroidered cloak. His left hand supports a painter’s palette whilst his right holds brushes. Giotto (1276–1336) was a very gifted Florentine and the leading artist in the early Renaissance. He came from a poor family and was employed first as a shepherd boy. According to Giorgio Vasari, that was how the great master painter Cimabue discovered him, and trained him to become a gifted sculptor, painter and architect.

The figure seated to Dante’s left represents Pope Innocent Ⅲ wearing Papal vestments of the period including the Triple Crown. His left hand holds a long stemmed pastoral cross. Innocent Ⅲ was one of the greatest of the Popes at a time when the papacy was at the height of its power. He was educated in Paris and rose rapidly in the Papal service, becoming a Cardinal in 1190, and being elected Pope in 1198 until his death in 1216. He had a legal mind and was a good diplomat, but was determined at all costs to extend the supreme power of the Papacy. He insisted on the right of the Papacy to intervene in the secular affairs of nations. He also supported the new orders of the Franciscans and Dominicans in the fourth Lateran Council.328 His Pontificate marked the climax of the mediaeval Papacy in establishing the universality of Catholic faith in Western Europe.

The inclusion of Innocent Ⅲ in a window supposedly devoted to Medieval Art shows some confusion. Here, in the twenty-fifth window of the Church History sequence, is evidence of the first breakdown in Mason’s concept of ‘speaking groups’. A full summary of the proposed variations in the subjects for this window is given in n27 below, where the evolution of the subjects for these two lancets is considered together. The 1887 Master Scheme was vague about the integrity of the group, in that it consisted of Catherine of Siena with Dante and Fra Angelico. Coherence was established under the title Art in Mason’s 1896 version with the grouping of Dante, Giotto and Michelangelo. However, by the first draft of 1902, Michelangelo had been replaced by Catherine of Siena. It was not until the final draft of 1902 Pope Innocent Ⅲ replaced Catherine in this window.329 The best that can be said for the integrity of the final version of the grouping in this window is that it places Art within the historic context of the High Medieval Age as exemplified by Innocent Ⅲ, and maintains a chronological coherence with the windows before and after it. His papacy marks the peak of the High Gothic period of architecture and art. Whether it is enough to form a ‘speaking group’ is debateable.

The chronological recommended route now returns to the north nave aisle.

n26. North Nave aisle north 5: Stephen Langton, Edward Ⅰ and Bishop Grosseteste

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n26 and n27 form a pair of lancets that were inserted in 1907. They were donated by Mrs. Sydney Catherine Tyache in memory of Mrs Charlotte Elizabeth Williams of Bodrean.330

n26 predella. Signing of Magna Charta.

The 1887 Master Scheme originally specified for this window a grouping of Stephen Langton with St Thomas of Canterbury and Hugh of Lincoln, with Magna Carta as the predella subject. By 1896 Mason had refined this ‘speaking group’ to include the present subjects under the title of English Nationalism".331 This 13th century grouping refocuses the Church History narrative back from European themes to the relationships between the English Church and State, and the formulation of England’s political and religious systems.

Stephen Langton (d. 1228) was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1207. He was English but studied in Paris. He was made a Cardinal in 1206, hence his portrayal in red robes and cardinal’s hat. King John opposed his consecration as Archbishop and Langton could not take up his see until 1213. He was a statesman who formulated the Magna Carta, signed 15th June 1215, as a national bill of rights. His role in that event is shown in the predella scene, where he is shown wearing full archiepiscopal vestments, standing behind the table where King John is signing the document. The scene also emphasises the tensions of the event by showing the background figures all armed and clad in armour. He upheld the privileges of Canterbury and established the claim of the Archbishop of Canterbury to be the Papal Legate.

The figure seated to Langton’s right represents King Edward Ⅰ. His right hand rests upon the hilt of a downward pointed sword, his left hand and arm support a sceptre. Edward Ⅰ was the most highly regarded English king after Alfred. His motto was ‘Serva Pactum’ (Keep troth). To many he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, and administrator and a man of faith. He died in 1307.

The figure seated to Langton’s left represents Robert Grosseteste, clean shaven, wearing Bishop’s vestments including a low mitre, jewelled morse and orphreys. His left hand holds a crozier and his right a model of Lincoln Cathedral.332 Robert Grosseteste was Bishop of Lincoln from 1235. He was a great scholar and patriot and had an abiding interest in church building. He had a great interest also in philosophy and probably inspired Roger Bacon. When he became Bishop he set about visiting his vast Diocese and setting it to rights, as a result of which he was not universally popular. He was a patron to the Friars in their early enthusiasm and died in 1253.

This window directly advances the theme of s18 with its scene with St Anselm remonstrating with William Rufus. The developments of English political and diocesan institutions are central to this group, which probably helps to explain why the original choice of St Thomas of Canterbury was removed in the revision of 1896.

n27. North Nave aisle north 6: Joan of Arc, Louis Ⅸ and St Catherine of Siena

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This was the second of the lancets (see n26) inserted in 1907 donated by Mrs. Sydney Catherine Tyache.

The proposed subjects for this lancet were subjected to more alterations between the schemes from 1887 and the final version of 1902 than any other window in the cathedral. Many of the changes also involved s19. We saw in that window that the late insertion of Pope Innocent Ⅲ destroyed the integrity of the theme of Art, and the evolution of the subject matter in this lancet shows a similar lack of coherence. The various changes in the composition of both windows are summarized as follows:

Date s19 n27
1887 Catherine + Dante / Fra Angelico Louis + Elizabeth of Hungary / Alexander Newsky
1896 Dante + Fra Angelico / Michelangelo Louis + Joan of Arc / Catherine of Siena
1902 Dante + Fra Angelico / Michelangelo Louis + Edward Ⅰ / Alexander Newsky
Dante + Giotto / Catherine of Siena Innocent Ⅲ + Louis/Joan of Arc
Dante + Giotto / Innocent Ⅲ Catherine of Siena + Louis / Joan of Arc
Final Dante + Giotto / Innocent Ⅲ Joan of Arc + Louis / Catherine of Siena

This summary shows the extent to which Mason and Worlledge struggled to establish some thematic integrity to these lancets, although the 1896 version of n27 was almost the final version.

Mason gave the title Chivalry to n27’s speaking group.333 The term defines a medieval philosophical and political system based on virtue, honour, courage and duty: the pursuit of which, whilst maintaining the highest principles, is an almost unattainable ideal. Defined in this way, the position of Joan of Arc (1412–1433) as the dominant figure makes a great deal of sense, and does indeed enable us to read some coherence into the window.

n27 predella. Joan of Arc at the coronation of Charles Ⅶ at Rheims.

She is shown with plate armour on her upper body and clad in a skirt peppered with fleur de lys. Her left hand holds a staff flying a pennant which is decorated with the motif of Christ in Majesty with two attendant angels. Her right hand grips a sword. She was a simple village maid who claimed that she was called by her ‘voices’ to rescue France. The images of armour and sword emphasise the setting of the Hundred Years War in which she led an army to relieve Orléans. She was instrumental in having Charles Ⅶ crowned at Rheims on 17th July 1429. This is the subject of the predella scene below, where she is shown standing in a prominent position. However, despite her high principles and ideals, she was later summoned before an ecclesiastical court. After being charged with witchcraft and heresy, she was burned at the stake. Eventually canonised in 1920, she is regarded as someone who believed in what she thought was the revelation of God’s will to her, and responded with complete integrity and courage.

The seated figure on the left represents the crowned King Louis Ⅸ (1214–1270), with his body swathed in robes. He has a cloak decorated with fleur de lys over his legs which are encased in plate armour. His right hand holds a pennant whilst his left knee supports a heavily embossed closed book. Louis Ⅸ of France was a King, Crusader and Saint. He occupied a position in thirteenth-century Europe of a general referee, rather as St Bernard had done in the previous century. He lived an austere and prayerful life, and his championship of the defence of the Holy Land embodied the highest ideals of mediaeval kingship. He ruled at a time of great cultural achievement, characterised by the foundation of universities and the building of Gothic cathedrals, including Sainte-Chapelle in Paris.334 Like Joan of Arc, his ideals also drew him into disastrous political involvement, in his case the Crusades, where eventually he met his death.

The third figure is St Catherine of Siena (1347–1380) wearing a Dominican habit and cloak. Her hair is unbound and held by a crown of thorns. Her left hand and arm support a pastoral cross, her right hand holds a heart with a flame coming from it, a reference to one of her visions of an angel plunging a spear into her own heart. She was the daughter of a Sienese dyer, and from an early age she received visions and lived a life of holiness. At the age of sixteen she became a Dominican sister and obtained great celebrity for her holiness and devotion. She too was drawn into intense political involvement, in particular during the Great Schism of 1378. She was directly involved with supporting Pope Urban whilst attempting to moderate some of his harsher deeds. She died at the early age of thirty three.

The chronological recommended route now returns to the south nave aisle and begins the events that lead to the European Reformation.

s20. South Nave south 5: St Thomas à Kempis, Savonarola and John Huss

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

s20 and s21 form a pair of lancets inserted in 1910 donated by Leonard Ferris in memory of his uncle Thomas Ferris of Truro. Interestingly the bequest was included in the proof of the Ferris will in 1888, twenty-two years before the windows were inserted!335

THIS·WINDOW·WAS·ERECTED·IN·MEMORY·OF·THOMAS·FERRIS·OF TRURO·BY·DIRECTION·OF·LEONARD·FERRIS·HIS·NEPHEW·

The composition of this ‘speaking group’ was the subject of much revision between 1887 and 1896, where Mason’s title was mysticism.336 The final version was entitled reformers in the 1902 draft,337 and it encompasses three of the leading intellectual reformers of the fifteenth century.

s20 2 upper. Thomas à Kempis, in a monk’s habit. His left hand and crook of the arm hold a copy of his book De Imitatione Christi (The Imitation of Christ).

The central figure represents Thomas à Kempis (1380–1471) in monastic habit. His left hand and crook of the arm hold a copy of his book The Imitation of Christ, a work which has been translated into more languages than any other theological book (except the Bible). Thomas à Kempis (‘the man from Kempen’, near Cologne) came from a poor family. He entered the House of Canons regular in 1399 and lived most of his life there, writing, preaching and copying manuscripts. All his writings are filled a great spirit of devotion.

SAVONAROLA. THOMAS·A·KEMPIS. JOHN·HUS

s20 2 lower. The figure seated on the left is Girolamo Savonarola, wearing a Dominican habit. His right knee supports an open book which is held by both hands. On the right is John Huss (Jan Hus) depicted wearing a robe and hooded cape, with a rolled scroll in his left hand.

The figure seated to his right represents Savonarola (1452–1498), wearing a Dominican habit, his right knee supports an open book which is held by both hands. Girolamo Savonarola was an Italian preacher and reformer who lived a life of fervent asceticism. So severe were his views that he that he provoked many enemies. When he began to prophesy about the future of the Church, the Pope called him to account, forbidding him to preach, and eventually excommunicating him in 1497. Savonarola, believing he was divinely inspired, demanded a general Council to depose the Pope. Savonarola had overreached himself. He lost his position with the people who supported him, was taken prisoner, tortured and finally burnt as a heretic.

The figure seated to his left represents John Huss (1369–1415) depicted wearing a robe and hooded cape, with a rolled scroll in his left hand. He was the son of a Bohemian peasant, and entered Prague University, taking his master’s degree in 1396. Ordained in 1400, he became well known as a preacher. At this time the doctrines of John Wycliffe were circulating, and Huss translated many of Wycliffe’s writings into Czech. The University of Prague became a centre for Wycliffe’s teaching, but in 1410 the Pope ordered the destruction of all Wycliffe’s books, and in 1411 John Huss himself was excommunicated. He appealed against his excommunication to the Council of Constance but was imprisoned upon his arrival to give evidence. He was burnt at the stake on 6th July 1415, living on in memory as a national hero.

THOMAS·A·KEMPIS·MEDITATING·IN·THE·FIELD

s20 1. Thomas à Kempis meditating near the monastery of Sint Agnietenberg (Mount St Agnes, shown at the top right) near Zwolle in the Netherlands.

The predella scene depicts him meditating in the fields of his monastery at Zwolle in the Netherlands. In this ‘speaking group’ it might be said that he represents the intellectual reforms of that time.

In many ways this and the next lancet s21 must be regarded as a pair, in that at this stage in the sequence of Church History they prepare the way for the Reformation. These three figures represent different aspects of fifteenth century reform, the intellectual/theological (à Kempis), the practical/personal (Savonarola), and the nationalistic (Huss). Two paid with their lives when their beliefs ultimately came into conflict with the Church authorities of the day. Their deaths were powerful symbols that the institutional church was no longer capable of dealing constructively with movements of reform.338 They serve as a continuing reminder of the manner in which subjects in the Church History sequence at this stage are still dominated by the dual themes of teaching and martyrdom that were represented in the two single lancets in the retro-quire of Saints Stephen and John (n2 and s2).

s21. South Nave aisle south 6: John Colet, Sir Thomas More and Erasmus

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This is the second of the pair of lancets (see s20) donated by Leonard Ferris in 1910.

THIS WINDOW·WAS·ERECTED·IN·MEMORY·OF·THOMAS·FERRIS·OF TRURO·BY·DIRECTION·OF·LEONARD·FERRIS·HIS·NEPHEW·

Although the composition of the ‘speaking group’ in the 1896 Scheme was not the same as the final version, Mason’s title of Preparations for Reform still applies.339 Its underlying themes are a direct and logical progression from those of the previous window. This group dates from the early decades of the sixteenth century. The three men worked closely together in Tudor England, and such personal contact makes this trio unique in the whole Church History sequence. They could equally be grouped under the title of Humanists340.

s21 2 upper. John Colet, Dean of St Paul’s and founder of St Paul’s Cathedral School in London, in alb and stole, his head covered by a plain cap. His hands are clasped together across the centre of his body with a book, untitled but with geometrical shapes on its front cover, resting in the crook of his right arm.

The central figure is Dean John Colet, Founder of St Paul’s School (1467–1519), in alb and stole, his head covered by a plain cap. His hands are clasped together across the centre of his body with a book resting in the crook of his right arm. He was the son of the Lord Mayor of London, and studied at Oxford and later in Paris. He was well known for his opposition to clerical worldliness, with its scandals of plurality and non-residency. His enemies accused him of heresy. From 1501 until his death he was Founder of St Paul’s School, where 153 boys of any nationality could gain a Christian education.

SIR·THOMAS·MORE. DEAN·COLET. ERASMUS

s21 2 lower. The figure seated to the left is Sir Thomas More, wearing Tudor clothing including a fur trimmed robe and flat cap, with the gold chain of office of Lord Chancellor of England resting upon his shoulders. His left hand holds a paper which may well be the Oath of Supremacy that he subsequently rejected. On the right is Erasmus, wearing the clothing of the Tudor period including flat cap and fur trimmed robe. His left hand holds a copy of Novum Instrumentum, his version of the New Testament.

The figure seated to the left is Sir Thomas More (1478–1535), wearing Tudor clothing including a fur trimmed robe and flat cap, with the gold chain of office of Lord Chancellor of England resting upon his shoulders. His left hand holds a paper which may well be the Oath of Supremacy that he subsequently rejected. Sir Thomas More was the son of Sir John More. He studied Classics at Oxford, and later Law. A deeply religious man, his house was a meeting place for intellectuals such as Erasmus, Colet and other leading spirits of the day. Under Henry Ⅷ his public career flourished to such a degree that in 1529 he succeeded Wolsey as Lord Chancellor. His loyalty to the Faith however brought him into conflict with his king. Opposing the King’s divorce, he resigned. Eighteen months’ retirement from the public scene ended with him being sent to the Tower for refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy. He was executed fifteen months later on 6th July 1535.

The figure seated to the right is Erasmus, wearing the clothing of the Tudor period including flat cap and fur trimmed robe. His left hand holds a copy of his version of the New Testament. Erasmus (1466–1536) was a Flemish scholar, humanist and critic. He was an advocate of Church reform based on sound learning and common sense, offering a reasonable, moderate outcome to the excitements and fears of the early 1500s, not revolution and schism.341 He was ordained in 1492. An eminent Greek scholar, he edited the first edition of the New Testament in Greek to be published north of the Pyrenees. He spent much of his life in England and became a close friend of Sir Thomas More.

'

COLET·AND·THE·CHILDREN·OF·ST:PAUL’S·SCHOOL

s21 1. John Colet teaching the boys at St Paul’s Cathedral School in London. In the foreground are eight boys kneeling and looking at Colet, dressed as above except that the stole is replaced by a cape. The scene refers to the end of the preface to the Latin grammar that he wrote for the school: And lift up your little white hands for me, which prayest for you to God … There is a picture of the Child Jesus in the background. In the rear at the High Master’s desk is the celebrated scholar William Lily, the first High Master of the school.

The predella represents Dean Colet, dressed as above except that the stole is replaced by a cape, teaching the boys at St Paul’s Cathedral School. There is a picture of the Child Jesus in the background. In the rear at the High Master’s desk is the celebrated scholar William Lily to whom Colet entrusted his justly famous school.

The ‘speaking group’ in this lancet concentrates the narrative of European reform down to a closely connected group of three in England in the immediate decades before the Dissolution. They also shared many of the ideas of the European group in the previous lancet. The question remains why Colet was given the dominant position over figures of the international stature of More342 and, in particular, Erasmus. Again, the clue lies in the predella scene. One can only conclude that Mason considered that Christian education as exemplified by Colet was the most important lasting theme in the group, and that this in turn reflected contemporary late-Victorian preoccupations about the quality and availability of education.

The chronological recommended route now returns to the north nave aisle and the Reformation itself.

n28. North Nave aisle north 7: Thomas Cranmer, John Wycliffe and Miles Coverdale

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n28 and n29 were the last lancets to be inserted in the main body of Truro Cathedral (excluding St Mary’s aisle). They were donated in 1938 by James Trewin of Stithians3425, in memory of James Trewin who was born in Stithians in 1847 and died in New Zealand on 11th March 1930. The donation of the windows was subject to Chapter also agreeing to the erection of a marble tablet in his memory.

By the 1930s, the firm of Clayton and Bell was run by Reginald Bell, grandson of Alfred Bell. He worked from his home in Buckinghamshire and the glass was painted and glazed at Wembley by two ex-Clayton and Bell employees who had set up on their own.343 Reginald Bell was obviously at great pains to make his designs for these two lancets match those of the earlier windows, and the main differences are to be seen in some of the colours that he used rather than in the design layout or glass painting. This is particularly apparent in the use of the colour black instead of the dark purple that is used elsewhere, such as in the Wesley window s24.

The composition of the window was not as envisaged in the 1887 Master Scheme, although it did specify that Cranmer was to be the main figure in a window with a predella representing his martyrdom.344 The final decision on the predella subject was made in 1937–8 at the suggestion of Reginald Bell. Mason’s title for this window in 1896 was The English Bible, and although the composition of the ‘speaking group’ was subsequently altered, the title still is relevant.345 However, the underlying theme for this group is that they represent three significant figures that prepared the base for the English Reformation and the foundation of the Church of England. The window also revives echoes of the formation of the writings of the New Testament in the retro-quire windows.

The central portrait figure of Thomas Cranmer (1489–1556) is shown wearing vestments of surplice and Canterbury cap. His hands hold a copy of the Book of Common Prayer. Cranmer was educated at Cambridge and ordained in 1523. He was in the service of Henry Ⅷ and supported him in the matter of his divorce from Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn. After Henry’s death Cranmer became one of the chief advisers to the young Edward Ⅵ, and all the while his ideas developed in a more protestant direction. When Mary came to the throne Cranmer was accused of treason and later heresy. Mary never forgave him for his part in her mother’s divorce. In spite of recanting his alleged doctrinal errors he was burnt at the stake at Oxford for heresy on 21st March 1556. The English Church owes to Cranmer the Book of Common Prayer.346

n28 predella. The English bible ordered in parish churches. Thomas Cranmer kneels waiting to receive the scroll proffered by Henry Ⅷ.

The predella scene, borrowed from the title page of the Great Bible (1539), is a symbolic representation of the King acceding to Cranmer’s request that the Bible should be read in English in all Parish Churches, after a century of prohibition. The predella scene shows in the foreground a portrait figure of Henry Ⅷ seated on a throne beneath which is a shield bearing the Tudor arms. Kneeling in front of the monarch is Cranmer waiting to receive the scroll proffered by the king.347

The figure seated to Cranmer’s right represents John Wycliffe (1320–1384), wearing a cap and cloak. He is shown writing in an open book, a reference to his translation of the Bible. John Wycliffe was a reformer. He came from a Yorkshire noble family and went to Oxford where he became a don. He later became a country parson. He founded a society of ‘poor preachers’ later known as Lollards, to spread his teaching. He translated the Bible into English and is often called the herald to the Reformation because he taught doctrines which cut at the roots of current devotion and dogma. The significance of his role on the Continent has already been mentioned in s20 in connection with John Huss.

The portrayed figure seated to Cranmer’s left represents Miles Coverdale (1488–1586), dressed in similar vestments to those worn by Cranmer, holding an open bible in his hands. Miles Coverdale was ordained priest in 1514 and entered the house of Augustinian Friars at Cambridge where he became interested in ecclesiastical reform. Eventually he had to reside abroad, and in 1535 he produced on the Continent the first English Bible. He later returned to England and became Bishop of Exeter in 1551 but had to go into exile during Mary’s reign. He returned in 1559 and from then on he was a leader of the Puritans.

n29. North Nave aisle north 8: Richard Hooker, Lancelot Andrewes and Francis Bacon

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This was the second of the two lancets donated by James Trewin of Stithians and inserted in 1938.3425

It was at this point that the final scheme of 1902 departed from the 1887 Master Scheme and Mason’s proposals of 1896. The earlier versions continued with continental figures, but as Mason explained in 1902

I cannot help thinking that it was a mistake on my part to include any names of foreigners in communion with Rome since the great break-up, when no names are mentioned of foreigners belonging to the Reformed communities … I think therefore it would be wisest and most satisfactory to admit no figures subsequent to the Reformation except members of the English Church.348

This window therefore starts the narrative of the post-Reformation English church, and consequently we do not have Mason’s earlier definitions for the ‘speaking groups’ for many of the remaining lancets. The subjects in this lancet were part of the final 1902 scheme and the subject matter of the predella was confirmed by Mason.349 Incidentally the proposals in the 1887 Master Scheme for the predellas of this pair of lancets were the martyrdom of both Bishops Fisher and Cranmer.

The central portrait figure is Richard Hooker (1554–1600) wearing white surplice and Canterbury cap, his left hand holding an open book. Richard Hooker was born at Heavitree near Exeter and educated at Exeter and Oxford. He was possibly the most accomplished advocate of Anglicanism ever. He developed his doctrines in his treatise ‘The laws of Ecclesiastical Polity’. He was a critic of the popular Puritan fallacies, carrying on the traditions of the earlier English reformers in maintaining the Catholicity of the English Church, in contradiction to German and Swiss Protestantism on the one hand and Italian and Spanish Catholicism on the other. The predella scene represents Richard Hooker preaching at St Paul’s Cross, London in 1581. This was where copies of Tyndale’s bible were burnt in 1527. Hooker, vested as above stands at the top of a flight of steps preaching to a group of people, with his left hand holding a bible and his right held up in declamation.

n29 left. Bishop Andrewes.

The seated figure to the left is Bishop Andrewes (1555–1626) wearing clerical vestments of his day including a cope with jewelled morse and orphreys, a black cap and ruff. His feet rest upon a cushion while his right knee supports an open book held by his right hand. Lancelot Andrewes was a learned and saintly man. He was famous for his sermons, and became Dean of Westminster in 1601, Bishop of Chester in 1605, Bishop of Ely in 1609 and Bishop of Winchester in 1619. He was a formative influence on Anglican Theology, one of the translators of the Authorized Version of the Bible, and is especially remembered for his Preces Privatae. This was a book of private devotion compiled in the main from ancient sources, but showing the mark of his ordered mind. He was outstanding for fidelity to the Church in an age of acute controversy. When he died on 25th September 1626 he was buried in Southwark Cathedral, which was then still a parish church.

n29 right. Francis Bacon.

The seated figure to the right depicts Francis Bacon (1561–1625) clothed in the costume of his period including doublet and hose. His right hand holds a furled scroll. Francis Bacon was a scholar, philosopher, essayist and orator, who made his career in law and rose to high office in the country, becoming Lord Chancellor in 1618. This eminence lasted only a short time, for in 1621 he was accused of bribery and corruption and had to retire to private life. Bacon’s writings were a great inspiration to European natural philosophers, and with Shakespeare he represents the humanism of thought which was one of the root causes of the reformation in religion.350 He was one of the world’s great thinkers and a master of English prose.

The integrity of this ‘speaking group’ is defined by Mason’s placing of Hooker as the leading Anglo-Catholic of his time in the dominant position, supported by Andrewes and Bacon; thus the theological influence of the new Church of England is emphasised but also its impact in the wider intellectual and cultural spheres in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.

The recommended route now returns to the south nave aisle and the Civil War period.

s22. South Nave aisle south 7: King Charles Ⅰ, George Herbert and Sir John Eliot

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

s22 and s23 form a pair of lancets inserted in 1904. They were donated in memory of ‘the Hawkins family, especially Christopher Henry Thomas’. He was the last surviving member of the Hawkins family of Trewithen, and the windows were donated by his widow Jane Ellen Hawkins of 10. Portland Place, London.351

TO·THE·GLORY·OF·GOD·IN·MEMORY·OF·THE·HAWKINS·FAMILY·OF·TREWITHEN·CORNWALL AND·ESPECIALLY·OF·CHRISTOPHER·HENRY·THOMAS·HAWKINS·THE·LAST·SURVIVOR·OF THAT·FAMILY·WHO·DIED··AGED·ⅬⅩⅩⅩⅢ·YEARS·THESE·WINDOWS WERE·OFFERED·BY·HIS·DEVOTED·WIFE·JANE·ELLEN·HAWKINS·

s22. Joint dedication with s23.

The main subject of this window is the turmoil and aftermath of the English Civil War. This ‘speaking group’ depicts three figures representing the extremes of the conflicting religious and political ideals of this period. Mason went to great pains to establish a balance of political and religious views in these two lancets:

I do not think Charles should be omitted as he was in the first scheme [the 1887 Master Scheme], but it would be a good thing to represent the reconciliation of all that he represents with so fine a specimen of the opposing view as Sir John Eliot—as good a Cornishman as Sir B Grenville in the next light.352

s22 2 upper. King Charles Ⅰ, shown wearing clothing of the period including a deep lace collar, doublet, breeches, waist sash and garter sash. His feet are booted and his left hand holds a plumed hat while his right clutches a walking stick. On his upper left arm is the symbol of the Order of the Garter.

Inevitably, the central portrait figure is Charles Ⅰ (1600–1649), shown wearing clothing of the period including a deep lace collar, doublet, breeches, waist sash and garter sash. His feet are booted and his left hand holds a plumed hat while his right clutches a walking stick. As King and Martyr he faced great controversy in the Church of his day. He favoured the High Church Party rather than those who supported Puritan views. He might have saved both his crown and his life by abandoning the Church, but through his suffering and death he did much to atone for the weaknesses and unreliability of a much harassed life. He was beheaded on 30th January 1649. At the end of the Commonwealth, Charles’ status as defender of the Church was such that in 1662–4 the new Parish Church in Falmouth was dedicated to ‘King Charles the Martyr’.

G: HERBERT CHARLES ⅠST SIR·JOHN·ELIOT

s22 2 lower. On the left is Revd George Herbert (1593–1633) wearing the clerical vestments of the period including cassock with trimming and collar and cap, with buckled shoes. His left hand holds an open book and in his right hand is a quill pen, a reference to his poetry. On the right is Sir John Eliot (1592–1632), bareheaded and wearing clothes of the period including white wheel ruff, doublet, hose and buckled shoes. His left hand holds a rolled scroll resting on his left knee with his right hand and knee supporting an unrolled scroll.

The seated figure to the left is George Herbert (1593–1633) wearing the clerical vestments of the period including cassock with trimming and collar and cap, with buckled shoes on his feet. His left hand holds an open book. He was a courtier, poet and divine. He gained a fellowship at Trinity College, Cambridge, where the quality of his scholarship was renowned. Seemingly marked out for the life of a courtier upon the death of James Ⅰ he changed to divinity and was ordained in 1630. Spending his last years at a country rectory near Salisbury he is remembered for a much loved work A Priest to the Temple; or a Country parson. Among his poems are many well known hymns such as ‘Teach me my God and King’ and ‘The God of Love my Shepherd is’.

The portrait figure seated to the right is Sir John Eliot (1592–1632), bareheaded and wearing clothes of the period including white wheel ruff, doublet, hose and buckled shoes. His left hand holds a rolled scroll resting on his left knee with his right hand and knee supporting an unrolled scroll. Sir John Eliot was an eloquent Cornish squire and the leader of the House of Commons in opposition to the King.353 He was opposed to what he saw as illegal taxation and was an advocate of ministerial responsibility to Parliament and of Parliamentary freedom of speech. He was sent to the Tower for his views and he finally died of consumption there in 1632.

DEATH·OF·CHARLES·ⅠST

s22 1. The execution of King Charles Ⅰ. In the centre foreground the king is kneeling with his head on the block. His hands are outstretched, the signal that he was ready to be executed. Behind him stands the headsman, his face covered and arms upraised above his head ready to strike with the axe. On the right is the priest who administered the last rites.

The predella shows the execution of King Charles Ⅰ. In the centre foreground the king is kneeling with his head on the block, whilst behind him the headsman, his face covered and arms upraised above his head ready to strike with the axe.

s23. South Nave aisle south 8: Margaret Godolphin, Sir Bevil Grenville and Bishop Jonathan Trelawny

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This was the second of the pair of lancets (see s22) donated by Jane Ellen Hawkins and inserted in 1904.

TO·THE·GLORY·OF·GOD·IN·MEMORY·OF·THE·HAWKINS·FAMILY·OF·TREWITHEN·CORNWALL AND·ESPECIALLY·OF·CHRISTOPHER·HENRY·THOMAS·HAWKINS·THE·LAST·SURVIVOR·OF THAT·FAMILY·WHO·DIED··AGED·ⅬⅩⅩⅩⅢ·YEARS·THESE·WINDOWS WERE·OFFERED·BY·HIS·DEVOTED·WIFE·JANE·ELLEN·HAWKINS·

s23. Joint dedication with s22.

This lancet continues the narrative of the conflict between religion and the State throughout the seventeenth century, and should be regarded as a pair with s22. It also enlarges on the Cornish narrative in the previous lancet by contrasting the aforementioned Eliot with Grenville, the leader of the Cornish Royalists. Mason’s title for this ‘speaking group’ was Cornish Churchmanship.354 In each case the individual portrayed was not prepared to sacrifice their beliefs regardless of the threat to their position or personal safety.

s23 2 upper. Margaret Godolphin, in Restoration period clothing: a gown with panniers and lace cuffs. In her left hand she holds a book, probably a bible in reference to her piety, and in her right hand she holds a fan.

The central figure is Margaret Godolphin (1652–1678) from the Restoration period. She is wearing contemporary clothing including a gown with panniers and lace cuffs. Her left arm is held across her body with her hand holding a book. Margaret Godolphin, née Blagge, of Godolphin House between Helston and Penzance was a Lady in Waiting to the Queen at the court of Charles Ⅱ. Her friend John Evelyn the diarist wrote a biography of her that referred to her saintly qualities. She was a vigorous opponent of the lax moral tone of the court and resigned her position there in protest. She died in and is buried in Breage Church near Helston.

SIR·BEVIL·GRENVILLE MARGARET·GODOLPHIN BP·TRELAWNY

s23 2 lower. On the left is Sir Bevil Grenville, wearing contemporary armour, a cloak, ruff and knee boots; his right hand holds the hilt of a sword with the point resting on the ground between his feet. On the right is Sir Jonathan Trelawny, wearing the episcopal vestments of preaching bands and rochet with lawn sleeves. He is depicted reading a book held open on his knees.

Seated to the left is Sir Bevil Grenville (1596–1643), wearing contemporary armour, a cloak, ruff and knee boots; his right hand holds the hilt of a sword with the point resting on the ground between his feet. Sir Bevil Grenville was born at Stowe in the parish of Kilkhampton. The grandson of the famous Elizabethan seaman Sir Richard Grenville, he was the leader of the Cornish Royalists.355 After winning three battles for the King he was killed at Lansdown, near Bath on 5th July 1643.

The seated figure to the right is Sir Jonathan Trelawny (1650–1721), wearing the episcopal vestments of preaching bands and a rochet with lawn sleeves. He is depicted reading a book held open on his knees. Bishop Trelawny was a Cornishman who, as Bishop of Bristol, was one of the seven Bishops who refused to publish James Ⅱ’s illegal Declaration of Indulgence in 1688. The seven Bishops were arrested on June 8th and thrown into the Tower of London. On June 29th they were tried at Westminster Hall on a charge of seditious libel but were found ‘not guilty’. Trelawny later became Bishop of Winchester. He had a great following amongst Cornishmen whose enthusiasm on this occasion was immortalised in the Revd RS Hawker of Morwenstow’s song of 1824:

And shall Trelawny live?
Or shall Trelawny die!
Here’s twenty thousand Cornishmen
Will know the reason why!

MARGARET·GODOLPHIN·LEAVING·CHARLES·ⅡS·COURT

s23 1. Margaret Godolphin on the point of resigning her post at the court. King Charles Ⅱ and Queen Catherine are seated on a throne on a podium, and Margaret stands below on the right with her head bowed.

The predella scene represents Margaret Godolphin on the point of resigning her post at the court. Seated on a throne on a podium are the royal couple, with the figure of Margaret standing below with her head bowed.

The recommended route now returns to the north nave aisle with the development of Anglicanism in the later eighteenth century.

n30. North Nave aisle north 9: Bishop Joseph Butler, Isaac Newton and George Frederick Handel

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This lancet was inserted in 1908. It was donated by his children and other relatives in memory of Canon Saltren Rogers, one of the first canons of the cathedral holding the stall of St Piran.356

This narrative of the history of the Church of England now moves forward into the more peaceful eighteenth century and onwards from Cornish to national themes. The principal theme is the healing of the rifts between State and Religion that scarred the previous century and was the subject of the previous two lancets. Mason’s title for this ‘speaking group’ was Philosophy,357 and the three figures chosen represent the part played by English Christian Humanism in the eighteenth century Age of Reason.

The central standing figure is Bishop Joseph Butler (1692–1752) wearing the episcopal vestments of his day, including preaching bands, surplice and rochet. His left hand supports a copy of his book Analogy. Joseph Butler was the son of Presbyterian parents. He became an Anglican, was ordained in 1718 and won fame as a preacher. In 1750 he became Bishop of Durham. He ranks among the greatest exponents of natural theology and ethics in England since the Reformation. His famous Analogy was written in 1736 against the Deists. In this book he shows that the principles of Divine governance which the Deists recognize in nature are identical with those revealed in Scripture. The predella scene represents Bishop Butler presenting a copy of the Analogy to Queen Catherine. The Queen is on a throne in the foreground, her left hand extended to receive the volume proffered by Butler who is bowing before her.

n30. Sir Isaac Newton and George Frederick Handel.

The seated figure to the left is Sir Isaac Newton (1643–1727) wearing contemporary clothing. In his right hand is a prism, a reference to his work on light and his use of a prism to show that white light is a mixture of the colours of the visible spectrum. A closed book entitled Principia (his work on mechanics) lies on the floor to his right. Sir Isaac Newton was the greatest of the mathematical philosophers. He was the President of the Royal Society for twenty five years, and illustrated the contemporary blend of fascination with a mysterious past, innovative observation, and abstract thinking.358 He had very strong religious convictions, basing his belief in God on the order of the Universe. Unorthodox in much of his thinking he was particularly interested in prophecy and its fulfilment.

The figure seated to the right is George Frederick Handel (1685–1759) wearing eighteenth-century clothing and holding across his body the score of ‘I know that my Redeemer liveth’ from Messiah. He was born in Saxony, but came to England in 1710 and became a British subject in 1726. A great composer, he is famous mainly for his oratorios, amongst which Messiah is the best known. His great popularity, particularly through Messiah, has remained constant to this day.

To preserve the chronological sequence of the narrative of the English Church in the eighteenth century, it is now necessary to return to s24 in the south nave aisle.

s24. South Nave aisle south 9: John Wesley, Charles Wesley, and Revd Samuel Walker

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This lancet was inserted in 1903 and donated by Joseph Compton-Rickett, Member of Parliament for Scarborough. It was in memory of Captain James Dunn, a friend of John Wesley and Edmund and Samuel Dunn, formerly of Mevagissey.359

TO·THE·GLORY·OF·GOD·AND·IN·MEMORY·OF·CAPTAIN·JAMES·DUNN·A·FRIEND·OF·JOHN·WESLEY AND·OF·HIS·SONS·EDMUND·AND SAMUEL·DUNN·FORMERLY·OF·MEVAGISSEY

s24.

The window depicts three figures from the evangelical revival of the eighteenth century.

s24 2 upper. John Wesley (1703–1791) wearing the clerical vestments of his day including cassock and bands, his left hand holding a bible, while his right arm is raised.

The central portrait figure is that of John Wesley (1703–1791) wearing the clerical vestments of his day including cassock and bands, his left hand holding a bible, while his right arm is raised. John Wesley was a priest of the Church of England. In his Oxford days he gathered around him a group of earnest, devout and scholarly Christians who became known as ‘The Holy Club’ or ‘Methodists’. He experienced a conversion on 24th May 1738 and his consequent enthusiastic preaching led to opposition from fellow clergy and churches being closed to him. He turned, reluctantly, to field preaching in 1739. The resulting amazing response led to him entering upon a travelling ministry. He spent the rest of his life in active evangelical work, using his organising ability to gather converts into ‘societies’. The number of ‘people called Methodists’ grew, profoundly influencing church life in England. Cornwall, then an industrial county, was one of the main centres of his activity—he visited it over thirty times. Gradually the new movement drew away from the established Church, although this was not what he wanted. John Wesley was the central figure in the rise of Methodism, and one of the greatest Christians of his age.

CHARLES WESLEY·JOHN WESLEY·SAMUEL WALKER

s24 2 lower. On the left is Charles Wesley (1707–1788) wearing vestments of surplice and bands, his hands clasped together across the centre of his body while his left knee supports a closed book entitled ‘Hymns’. On the right is Revd Samuel Walker (1714–1761) in the same clothing as Charles Wesley; his left hand rests on his left knee while the right knee supports a closed book.

Seated to the left is Charles Wesley (1707–1788) wearing vestments of surplice and bands, his hands clasped together across the centre of his body while his left knee supports a closed book entitled ‘Hymns’. The younger brother of John, he had been a member of ‘The Holy Club’, also becoming an ordained priest. He shared in establishing Methodism, being the first of the two to visit Cornwall in 1743. After a period as a travelling preacher, he settled to married life and wrote over six hundred hymns, which characterised the Methodist movement, which was ‘born to sing’.360 A more well-balanced character than his brother, he remained faithful to the Church of England, being unhappy with those actions of John which led to the separation of Methodism.

The seated figure to the right is Revd Samuel Walker (1714–1761) in the same clothing as Charles Wesley; his left hand rests on his left knee while the right knee supports a closed book. Samuel Walker was a leader of the evangelical revival in Cornwall. He was born in Exeter and was the great grandson of Bishop Hall of Exeter. He obtained his BA in 1737 from Exeter College, Oxford. He became assistant curate of St Mary’s Truro in 1746. There he came under the influence of George Canon, Headmaster of Truro Grammar School, who persuaded him to see the truth of evangelical doctrines. By his selfless devotion and strong churchmanship he transformed the religious life of the town. He died in 1761. His evangelical ministry in Truro was so outstanding that John Wesley delayed any attempt to establish his own work here until Walker died.

WESLEY·PREACHING·IN·GWENNAP·PIT·

s24 1. John Wesley preaching to the miners at the famous Gwennap pit near Redruth, the most renowned site for his field preaching in Cornwall. The figure of Wesley, clothed as above, is in the same posture and surrounded by eighteen figures of miners and their families. A pit wheel and supports are in the background.

The predella scene shows John Wesley preaching to the miners at the famous Gwennap pit near Redruth: the most renowned site for his field preaching in Cornwall. This is now a place of pilgrimage for Cornish Methodists and a great open-air service is held there every year. The figure of Wesley, clothed as above, is in the same posture and surrounded by seventeen figures of miners and their families. A pit wheel and supports are in the background. This is the earliest post-medieval stained glass window to depict Cornish miners (Chapter 13).

The proposed location for this window changed in the various schemes over the years. Originally in the 1887 Master Scheme it was specifically next to the Benson window at the end of the north nave aisle opposite the south porch (i.e., n32).361 In the 1896 scheme the window was retained in this location, and also in the first draft of the 1902 scheme, whereas s24 was designated for the Queen Victoria window.362 Within a matter of weeks a new draft had reversed their positions, Wesley now in s24 and Queen Victoria in n32.363 The background to this move is to be found in an illuminating letter from Mason to Worlledge in 1902.364

I saw Mr Ricketts yesterday at the House of Commons. It seemed to me the simplest plan to talk over the scheme with him, and I asked him for an appointment. He was very pleasant about the whole thing, and quite understood the purpose of the proposed alterations in the scheme for the nave windows, and saw that it would be impossible for the Wesley light to stand beside the Benson light. He mentioned his reasons for liking their juxtaposition, but said he had not the least objection to the transference of the Wesley light to the place indicated on my new plan—viz. the first on the right hand as you enter the southwest door. He said he considered the alteration of the scheme an improvement. The only question that he asked was whether there was any internal structure, a wall or anything, which would hide off that light when you came in at the southwest door, and I said I would make the point of enquiring. I may say that I told him that if he had the slightest feeling about the change of position of his window I would gladly give up the Benson window to him; but I think you may say that he will have no objection, unless it would be on account of any erection that might conceal that light—in which case it might easily change places with the Martyn light opposite.

This letter is very revealing on a number of counts. Firstly it confirms yet again the dominant role that Mason played at this stage in the evolution of the schemes, and the extent to which Worlledge and the Cathedral Chapter entrusted him to negotiate with donors. Secondly it reveals that now Queen Victoria had been added to the scheme a year after her death, the original position of the Wesley window next to Bishop Benson was untenable. It must be remembered that in the early decades of the cathedral the southwest porch was one of the main entrances: until the building of the west door narthex in the 1980s the unprotected west door was used much less for general purposes. Therefore the first windows that the congregation and visitors would have seen on entering the southwest porch would have been n32 and n33, i.e. Victoria and Benson. The fact that Compton-Rickett M.P. was so concerned about there being no erection to conceal the Wesley window raises some speculation. It could be that he was concerned that a porch or narthex might be put around the southwest door as with the south transept entrance. However, it might also be that the Wesley window was by its nature a very sensitive subject to some Anglicans, and at the time there might have been some opinions about placing a screen across the south nave aisle to hide the window that were actually being voiced. Thirdly, it says a great deal that Mason was willing to sacrifice donating the Benson window, a window that must have meant an enormous amount to him. But he obviously felt that he was willing to make the sacrifice to retain Rickett as a donor.

The recommended route now returns to n31 in the north nave aisle to the final windows in the Christian History sequence at the western end of the north nave aisle. These three windows summarise the history of nineteenth-century Anglicanism.

n31. North Nave aisle north 10: Henry Martyn, John Keble and FD Maurice

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n31 was inserted in 1907. The lancet was donated ‘by many friends’ in memory of Alfred Richard Boucher of Trenean. He was an original member of the Cathedral Building Committee.365

The final three windows in the Church History sequence are all concerned with various aspects of the development of the Church of England in the nineteenth century. They need to be viewed as a coherent chronological sequence. The original Master Scheme was completed in 1887 during the year of Queen Victoria’s Jubilee, and contained no figures of the nineteenth century except for Bishop Benson himself in the final lancet together with John Keble, and Henry Martyn as part of a group of foreign missionaries.366 Fifteen years later the nave was nearing completion; a new century had dawned; and both Benson and Queen Victoria were dead. The personages and themes of these last three windows were Mason’s commentary on the nineteenth century that had just closed.

n31 upper. Henry Martyn.

Rather unsurprisingly, Mason retained Henry Martyn (1781–1812) as the dominant figure in this ‘speaking group’:367 one must remember Mason’s own commitment as Canon Missioner of the new Diocese of Truro to the industrial and rural parts of Cornwall. Martyn is shown in plain vestments including cassock and bands. His right hand is raised in blessing while his left holds a bible against his body. Behind his head is an inscribed scroll all the ends of the world shall remember. The details of his life and work have already been given (Chapter 8, Baptistry windows Bs1–4). The predella scene represents Martyn consulting Persian scholars about his translation of the New Testament, and is to some degree a repeat of the subject in Bs4. At the centre the seated figure of Martyn, clothed as above with an open book on his knee, is surrounded by oriental figures, four seated and four standing. Mason here is making a statement on the importance of the overseas missionary theme in a century which saw the greatest expansion of the British Empire.

n31 lower left. John Keble.

The seated figure to the left is John Keble (1792–1866) wearing clerical vestments of surplice and stole. His left hand holds a copy of his book of poems The Christian Year against his body while his right holds a quill pen. John Keble was a poet, theologian and pastor. He was educated at Oxford, becoming Professor of Poetry there. Ordained priest in 1816, he became one of the leaders of the High Church Tractarian movement. He was a close friend of John Henry Newman and co-operated closely with him on the publication of the Oxford Tracts. Their purpose was to minimise the Church of England’s debt to the Reformation and to restore a sense of Catholicity to it, emphasising its apostolic succession of bishops across the Reformation divide.368 After the acutely divisive event of Newman’s secession to Rome, Keble, with his friend Edward Bouverie Pusey (1800–1882), kept the High Church movement steadily attached to the Church of England. His saintly character attracted all who came into contact with him and his spiritual advice was widely sought after. The inclusion at the bottom left of an angel with lyre is a reference to the fact that many of his poems (such as ‘Blest are the poor in heart’) became the lyrics for hymns.

Seated to the right is Frederick Denison Maurice (1805–1872) wearing academic dress, his left hand and an open book rest upon his left knee. Maurice was born the son of a Unitarian minister. After becoming an Anglican he was ordained in 1834. In 1840 he was elected Professor of English Literature and History at King’s College, London and in 1846 he became Professor of Theology in the newly created Theological School at King’s College. He was a leader of the ‘broad’ school of thought in the Church of his day—a social reformer and religious philosopher whose widespread influence included Charles Kingsley, who was a close friend of Benson in his time as Head of Wellington College.

In this group, Mason combined what he saw as the most characteristic elements in nineteenth-century Anglicanism. The themes of mission and the Anglo-Catholic movement were dear to his heart and personal convictions, and the inclusion of Maurice as the representative of the broad-church movement establishes a unity to the group. Chapter however had proposed Keble as the main figure of the lancet with the predella a scene of Keble’s life.369 The eventual dominant position of the missionary however indicates that Mason was less concerned with ritual status than with the practical propagation of the Christian message in the nineteenth century,370 and the end result shows the compromise that was eventually reached between Mason and Chapter.

n32. North Nave aisle north 11: Queen Victoria, General Gordon and Alfred Lord Tennyson

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n32 was inserted in 1903. It was donated by Mrs. Rose Caroline Graves Sawle, Dowager Lady Graves Sawle, in memory of her daughter Dorothea Graves Sawle. The donor originally wanted to donate an outdoor pulpit, but was persuaded by Chapter to donate this window instead.371

n32 2. Gordon, Queen Victoria, Tennyson.

Queen Victoria, Gen Gordon and Alfred Lord Tennyson. Gen Gordon holds a copy of the bible in his left hand.

This lancet is the second of three covering the development of Anglicanism in the nineteenth century. The earlier, n31, concentrates on the broad developments in Anglicanism during the century, whilst the last, n33, deals exclusively with the foundation of the cathedral and the Diocese of Truro. This central lancet identifies certain characteristics of the Victorian Age, as shown in three key personages. The central portrait figure (n32 2) of course is the young Queen Victoria herself, clothed in her coronation robes and a diadem-style crown, her left hand holding an orb and her right a sceptre. The predella below (n32 1) focuses on this dedication by showing Victoria receiving news of her accession on 20th June 1837. In the foreground the young Queen, bareheaded and clothed in a nightdress and shawl, is holding out her right hand to the kneeling figure of Dr Howley, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1828–1848. Behind Howley stands the bowing figure of the Marquis Conyngham, the Lord Chamberlain.372.

n32 1. Queen Victoria receiving the news of her accession.

The dominant figure of Victoria in the ‘speaking group’ defines both the person and the Age to which she gave her name. The composition of the other two figures was probably the source of more debate than any other single window in the whole sequence. We have seen that in the 1896 revision of the Master Scheme, the Wesley window was still next to the Benson lancet, and only during the various drafts in early 1902, was the new Victoria window moved from s23 to n33.373 The first two alternatives in the ‘speaking group’ were David Livingstone and General Gordon.374 Within weeks, Worlledge had pencilled in alternatives of Bishop Selwyn, J.C. Adams and Charles Kingsley.375 By March 25th the choice was back to Livingstone and Gordon.376 However, within the next twelve months Livingstone had been replaced by Tennyson, probably to introduce a more nuanced and balanced relationship between the figures, and possibly a reaction by Chapter to yet another missionary reference! A further last-minute change was in the predella subject. In all of the various alternatives, the predella is listed as ‘the Jubilee’, and it was not until the window was commissioned in 1903 that the choice of the final subject of the news of Victoria’s accession was confirmed.

The left-hand seated uniformed figure is General Gordon (1833–1885); his right hand holds a cane that rests between his legs while his left hand holds up the Bible. Charles Gordon was a soldier, administrator and a devout Christian. He was sometimes known as ‘Chinese Gordon’ a name arising from his leadership of the army which suppressed the Chinese rebellion. He was twice governor of the Sudan, and is perhaps better known as ‘Gordon of Khartoum’ where he met his death. To the Victorians he epitomised the ideal of the Christian Soldier.

The right-hand seated figure is Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809–1892), bearded and clothed in his characteristic garb including a cloak and soft hat.377 His left hand supports his chin, while his right rests upon the upper edge of a copy of In Memoriam. This poem had a profound effect throughout the Victorian Age, and appealed to Victorian sensibilities on faith and mortality at many levels. He also had a lively interest in contemporary science and politics.

So, the balance of the ‘speaking group’ beneath the figure-head of the Age ended up by being between the Christian soldier and the Christian poet. The influence of the Empire (which would have overpowered the group if both Livingstone and Gordon had been included) was eventually modified with the cultural influence of poetry. Similarly, by returning the predella subject to the beginning of the reign rather than its end, the final grouping reflects on the influence of the Church throughout the Victorian Age over the widest range of English society and culture.

n33. North Nave aisle north 12: Bishop Benson, Faith and Hope

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

The final lancet of the Church History sequence was appropriately donated by Canon Arthur James Mason himself.378 It was inserted in time for the service of Benediction on 15th July 1903.379

n33.

The final window in the Church History sequence marks the foundation of the cathedral and looks forward to the future of both the building and the Diocese.

n33 2 upper. Archbishop Benson wearing a richly embroidered cope and other archiepiscopal vestments including surplice, stole and bishop’s sleeves. His right hand is held up in blessing, his left holds his archiepiscopal cross.

The central portrait figure (n33 2) is of Archbishop Benson wearing a richly embroidered cope and other archiepiscopal vestments including surplice, stole and bishop’s sleeves. His right hand is held up in blessing, his left holds his archiepiscopal cross. Edward White Benson (1829–96) was educated at Birmingham and Cambridge. He became a master at Rugby School in 1852 then Master of the newly founded Wellington School in 1859. In 1877, after four years as Chancellor of Lincoln cathedral, he was elected the first Bishop of Truro. His vigorous and forceful character was well suited to the organisation of the new Diocese and the creation of the new cathedral. In 1883 he succeeded Archbishop AC Tait as 94th Archbishop of Canterbury. As a respected scholar and wise ruler, the Church of England owes much to him for his ‘Lincoln judgement’ which brought peace to a Church bitterly divided by disputes about ritual and ceremonial.

EDWARD·FIRST·BISHOP·OF·TRURO

n33 2 lower. The allegorical figure on the left is Faith, a nimbed female figure holding a pastoral cross in her right hand and a chalice in her left. The figure seated on the right is Hope, grasping a large anchor in her right hand.

The allegorical figure seated to his right represents Faith, a nimbed female figure holding a pastoral cross in her right hand and a chalice in her left. The similar figure seated to his left represents Hope, grasping a large anchor in her right hand. The figures of Faith and Hope symbolise that it is on these qualities that the future for the Cathedral and the Diocese depends. Again, in the formulation of this design, Mason worked closely with Clayton and Bell, and passed on to Worlledge their comment that the introduction of the symbolic figures of Faith and Hope, in lieu of historic personages, would afford all art-opportunity that could be desired.380

FOUNDATION·OF·TRURO·CATHEDRAL

n33 1. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, lays the Foundation Stone of Truro Cathedral on 20th May 1880. He is dressed in Masonic regalia and holds a maul. He is surrounded by a number of other figures associated with the occasion and the Cathedral, including the Princess of Wales, John Loughborough Pearson (Architect), Prince George and Prince Albert Victor, Bishop of Exeter (Dr Frederick Temple), Bishop Benson, Canon George Howard Wilkinson (the second Bishop of Truro), the Bishop of Madagascar (Dr R Kestell Cornish, son of a former Vicar of Kenwyn), Lord Mount Edgcumbe and Sir Wyatt Truscott (Lord Mayor of London and native of Truro). Standing in front are two servers, Master Hugh Williams, son of a faithful layman, and Master Hugh Benson, youngest son of Bishop Benson. Kneeling in the foreground on the right is Canon Mason, the Canon Missioner and donor of the window. The background features scaffolding and other evidence of building work.

The predella scene (n33 1) represents the laying of the Foundation Stone of Truro Cathedral, featuring Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, in Masonic regalia holding a maul. He is surrounded by a number of other figures associated with the occasion and the Cathedral, including the Princess of Wales, John Loughborough Pearson (Architect), Prince George and Prince Albert Victor, Bishop of Exeter (Dr Frederick Temple), Bishop Benson, Canon George Howard Wilkinson (the second Bishop of Truro), the Bishop of Madagascar (Dr R. Kestell Cornish, son of a former Vicar of Kenwyn), Lord Mount Edgcumbe and Sir Wyatt Truscott (Lord Mayor of London and native of Truro). Standing in front are two servers, Master Hugh Williams, son of a faithful layman, and Master Hugh Benson, youngest son of Bishop Benson. Kneeling in the foreground on the right is Canon Mason, the Canon Missioner and donor of the window. The background features scaffolding and other evidence of building work. The scene shows the second foundation stone that was laid that day. The first, at the northeast corner of the quire, was where building was to start, whilst the second was set in half a granite pillar in a position that would be the last part of the nave to be built. For fifteen years the ‘Prince of Wales pillar’ stood in the open air and was duly weathered by the polluted Truro air, until that part of the nave was built and the rest of the pillar completed in un-weathered similar stone.

n33 1 detail. Canon Mason kneeling at the laying of the Foundation Stone of Truro Cathedral.

At the service of Benediction on 15th July 1903 fifteen of the twenty-one nave windows were still plain glass. This window had just been inserted seven days before, and would have been the first to be seen by the assembling congregation on entering either through the west door from High Cross or through the southwest door. Today much is made of the cathedral reflecting ‘Pearson’s vision’, and certainly the general view from the west door down the nave to the quire and the great east window shows the best features of his architectural genius. So far as Benson and Mason’s window scheme is concerned, the effect of standing at the west end and seeing the Benson and Victoria windows to the left and the Wesley window to the right would have made a powerful statement to the contemporary congregation on the new Cornish diocese and its cathedral and their place in the development of the Church of England in the previous nineteenth and new twentieth centuries.

Unfortunately later re-ordering of the western end of the nave renders such an impact ineffective. Pearson, Benson and Mason’s vision for their window sequence has been blunted, as it has been through other reorderings of the north transept and the Baptistry. The west end of the north nave aisle was enclosed to form the Jesus Chapel in 1926381, and the view of both the Victoria and Benson windows from the west and southwest doors was effectively blocked. This has been exacerbated by the enclosure of the west doors by the modern narthex in the early 1980s. Today the southwest door is rarely in use, the Benson and Victoria windows are partially hidden, and rather ironically, in view of Compton Rickett’s comments (s24), the first view for anyone on emerging from the narthex into the nave is of the Wesley window!

The subsequent re-ordering of these areas of the cathedral however should not be allowed to spoil our appreciation and understanding of the immense and unique achievement of the Church History sequence. The conception of this sequence by Benson and Mason was unique in its scope and ambition. The fact that it was fulfilled, with modifications, throughout an extended period of building construction by donors who were willing to pay for windows over which they had no influence in the choice of subject-matter is equally unique.

References

  1. TC: p 48.
  2. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  3. CCRO TCM/1134 Chapter minutes 20th April, 1900, reported that the glass had been returned for modification to Clayton and Bell. CCRO TCM/1135 Chapter minutes 6th February, 1903 contains a progress report prior to insertion. Walter James:- b. 1757 at Merther, d. 1851 at Portsmouth. Ursula Lavinia James, granddaughter of Reginald Hawes of Hellow, b. 1763 at Old Kea, d. 1822 at Truro.
  4. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  5. DM : p. 340.
  6. The stag is also an attribute of St Petroc. A scene showing the saint saving the stag from hunters is in a south aisle window of St Petroc’s, Bodmin.
  7. The predella to n33 shows the Prince of Wales and Lord Mount Edgecombe in full Masonic regalia. The inscription on the eastern foundation stone reads ‘Laid by Edward, Prince of Wales, Grand Master of the Free and Ancient Order of Masons’. AQ, p. 144 relates how the Prince of Wales insisted that Pearson be made a freemason on the spot before the ceremony commenced in order that he might be part of the platform party.
  8. CCRO TCM/432 Cathedral Local Building committee minutes . Fundraising Western Morning News April 24, 1895 p 5, Royal Cornwall Gazette April 25, 1895 p 5, Royal Cornwall Gazette September 19, 1895 p 4. Insertion Western Morning News December 23, 1895 p 5 (detailed description of predella), Royal Cornwall Gazette December 26, 1895 p 5.
  9. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  10. DM : p. 447.
  11. CCRO TCM/430 Cathedral Committee minutes 24th September, 1912. TDK 1913 : p. 157. TDM 1912 : pp. 68/135. Cost for both windows was £210.
  12. CCRO TCM/1135 Residentiary Chapter Minute Book 1901–1912: 10th January, 1912.
  13. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  14. DM : p. 341.
  15. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  16. DM : p. 349.
  17. CCRO TCM/590/13–14 Letters from Kenneth James 26th October, 1899 and 4th November, 1899. Date of insertion from Truro Cathedral inventory.
  18. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  19. Nicholas Orme : Cornwall and the Cross—Christianity 500–1560, London 2007, p.8.
  20. CCRO TCM/546/5 Letter from Canon Mason 7th April, 1902 (The Precincts, Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  21. CCRO TCM/590/13–14 Letters from Kenneth James 26th October, 1899 and 4th November, 1899.
  22. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  23. CCRO TCM/546/5 Letter from Canon Mason 7th April, 1902 (The Precincts, Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge. At this stage Clara was proposed as an alternative to Dominic, but Mason argues strongly for Dominic’s retention.
  24. DM : p. 404.
  25. CCRO TCM/430 Cathedral Committee minutes 13th October, 1908. TDK 1909 : p. 164. The cost of the window was £130. It seems from earlier documentation that the original plan was to insert a light in St Mary’s aisle.
  26. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  27. CCRO TCM/430 Cathedral Committee minutes 23rd September, 1913. TDK 1914 : p. 260. Accounts presented to the Truro Diocesan Conference 1913 state that the sum donated by Mrs Field for the window was £105.
  28. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  29. DM : p. 405–6.
  30. CCRO TCM/546/12 unsigned and handwritten, probably in Worlledge’s hand, ‘finally revised list March 25th 1902’
  31. CCRO TCM/1135 The design was approved in the Chapter minutes 22nd August, 1906. Insertion recorded in TDF 1907 (TDC 1908: p. 162). The cost of the pair of windows was £221.4s.0d according to the accounts presented to the Truro Diocesan Conference 1907.
  32. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  33. The original Master Scheme had included St Hugh of Lincoln. The presence of two medieval Bishops of Lincoln probably reflects Benson’s close links with Lincoln cathedral through his earlier position as Canon Chancellor, and the prominence that he gave to Lincoln Cathedral in his book The Cathedral: its necessary place in the life and work of the Church, London, 1878.
  34. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  35. Benson’s Wellington College Chapel was built in 1863, designed by George Gilbert Scott, and modelled on Sainte-Chapelle, Paris.
  36. CCRO TCM/430 Cathedral Committee minutes 10th October, 1910. TDC 1911: 169. Both windows cost £190. CCRO TCM/378/1–2 proof of Ferris will 20th January, 1888. Insertion imminent Royal Cornwall Gazette March 10, 1910 p 4.
  37. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge: the composition of the group at that stage was Thomas à Kempis, Ken and Fenalon.
  38. CCRO TCM/546/10 Unsigned list with amendments in Worlledge’s hand.
  39. DM : p. 572.
  40. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge: the composition of the group at that stage was John More, Savonarola and Erasmus.
  41. Peter Ackroyd The Life of Sir Thomas More London, 1999, p. 86 ‘a student of classical learning in the related fields of grammar, rhetoric and literature’.
  42. DM : p. 594.
  43. Ackroyd, p. 69 Colet was More’s ‘confessor’.
  1. Insertion and donor reported, with photos of windows, in Western Morning News October 15, 1938 p 13
  1. Peter Larkworthy Handbook for A Century of Stained Glass, an exhibition of original drawings and glass by Clayton and Bell: St Mary’s Church, Haddenham, Bucks 12/13th April, 1996.
  2. TC: p 49. The other figures apart from Cranmer in the 1887 Master Scheme were John Trevisa and Bishop Andrewes.
  3. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge: the composition of the group at that stage was still Cranmer, Trevisa, and Andrewes.
  4. DM : p. 630.
  5. DM : p. 627 In one of the religious ironies with which Henry’s reign was replete, The King came to authorize the translation made by the man (i.e. Tyndale) whose murder he had in effect arranged.
  6. CCRO TCM 546/2 Letter 9th January, 1902 from Canon Mason (The Precincts, Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  7. CCRO TCM/546/12 (unsigned, same hand as 546/10, finally revised list March 25th 1902)
  8. DM : p. 774.
  9. CCRO TDM 1904: p.79. CCRO TCM/430 Cathedral committee minutes Sept. 1904. The cartoon by George Daniels for this window was exhibit number 34 in the catalogue for the 1996 Clayton and Bell exhibition at Haddenham.
  10. CCRO TCM/546/3 Letter 28th January, 1902 from Canon Mason (32. Jesus Lane, Cambridge) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  11. A statue to Sir John Eliot is placed above the south porch of the cathedral.
  12. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  13. A statue to Sir Bevil Grenville is placed above the south porch of the cathedral.
  14. CCRO TCM/430 Cathedral Committee minutes 13th October, 1908. TDC 1909: p.166.
  15. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge: the composition of the group at this stage included Paschal in place of Handel.
  16. DM : p. 774.
  17. CCRO TCM/1135 Chapter minutes 6th February, 1903.
  18. DM : p. 750.
  19. TC: p 50.
  20. CCRO TCM/546/10.
  21. CCRO TCM/546/11.
  22. CCRO TCM/546/3 Letter 28th January, 1902 from Canon Mason (32. Jesus Lane, Cambridge) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  23. CCRO TCM/1135 Design approved in the Chapter minutes 22nd August, 1906. TDM 1907 : p.208. Cost of the lancet was £105.
  24. TC: p 50.
  25. NA DD/716/69/4 Mason’s diaries have a number of references to Henry Martyn. 14/10/1881 refers to an article Mason was writing on Martyn. Mason also regularly marked the anniversary of Martyn’s death: 17/10/1881—preached at Lannarth on Henry Martyn’s anniversary. 16/10/1883—celebrated with thoughts of Henry Martyn.
  26. DM : p. 840.
  27. CCRO TCM/1135 Residentiary Chapter Minute Book 1901–1912: 3rd September, 1906.
  28. CCRO TCM 546/3 Letter 28th January, 1902 from Canon Mason (The Precincts, Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge. Mason’s first suggestion was an entirely missionary group: I propose to place Livingstone and Selwyn with Martyn. The three would represent, with picturesque variety, the expansion of England and of the Church of England—India, Africa and New Zealand.
  29. CCRO TCM/434 Cathedral Local building minutes 11th April, 1903—suggestion to the donor of proposed outdoor pulpit that the donation should be for Victoria window instead. CCRO TCM/436 Executive Committee minutes 11th July, 1903, window in place.
  30. This very unusual subject is repeated in the 1887 Jubilee window by RW Winfield in Malvern Priory.
  31. CCRO TCM 546/3 Letter 28th January, 1902 from Canon Mason (The Precincts, Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge. Next to Benson, we ought to have Queen Victoria for the chief figure: and I thought we might just put her with two Cornishmen, or half Cornishmen—JC Adams, who already has a monument in the Cathedral, and C Kingsley. I admit that Kingsley is not quite great enough if he were not partly Cornish … but he represents a great deal of what is most characteristic of 19th Century work.
  32. CCRO TCM/546/10.
  33. CCRO TCM/546/11.
  34. CCRO TCM/546/12, with pencilled comment of finally revised list March 25th 1902.
  35. As in his memorial statue outside Lincoln Cathedral.
  36. CCRO TCM/1134 Residentiary Chapter Minute Book 1888–1901: 21st November 1900 Chapter approval of Mason’s offer to donate the window and the actual design.
  37. CCRO TCM/1135 Residentiary Chapter Minute Book 1888–1901: 8th July, 1903, the window was inserted.
  38. CCRO TCM 546/3 Letter 28th January, 1902 from Canon Mason (The Precincts, Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  39. CS Philips Walter Howard Frere—Bishop of Truro. London 1947. p. 84. The Chapel was a gift from the English Church Union to Bishop Frere on his consecration in 1923, but not completed and dedicated until 1926.