Chapter 10 The retro-quire and quire aisle windows: the church history sequence (1)

The whole of the windows in the aisles is devoted to a great series of Saints and worthies of the Catholic Church, and of the English Branch of it, ranging from the earliest days since Pentecost down to the present day.223

The format of the Church History windows

With the exception of n2 and s2, Clayton and Bell adopted the same design format for all of these lancet windows, thus embedding an artistic and stylistic unity for the ground-level stained glass throughout the whole building. Each lancet consists of a group of three figures, one standing and two seated, with a lower predella scene which depicts a major event in the standing figure’s life. The lancets are bounded by borders, modelled on medieval patterns, functioning as a transition between the stone masonry and the painted and stained glass.224 The top of each lancet has a ‘canopy’ design again based on 14th century models: these are far simpler than the later 15th–16th century Perpendicular canopies which were necessary to fill much larger later windows (Chapter 14, St Mary’s aisle SMs14). There are subtle variations in the colours and designs of both the borders and canopies throughout the Church History sequence providing variety to what would otherwise be a formal repetitive design.

The two exceptions to this standard format are the lancets of St Stephen, n2 and St John the Divine s2: each lancet contains a single figure only, above two scenes from that saint’s life. Their position at the east end of the north and south retro-quire forms a strong focal point for both quire and nave aisles throughout the whole length of the building. The reason for these lancets having a different format to all the others in the sequence is to focus attention on the theological significance of one specific saint rather than a grouping of three figures. St Stephen represents the theme of martyrdom and St John the themes of interpretation and teaching,225 and we have already seen (Chapter 6) how they in turn form a direct link between the final panels in the great east window E1 and the start of the Christian History sequence.

Interpretation

The sequence of one hundred and eight personages in these thirty-eight windows covers the whole history of the Christian Church from Christ’s commission to St Peter to the laying of Truro Cathedral’s foundation stone. The grouping of the figures in units of three implies that there is a theological and historical relationship between them—what Mason referred to as a ‘speaking group’.226 That one figure is shown standing whilst the other two are seated also implies a hierarchy of significance. The clue to the connections between the three personages and the nature of the hierarchy is usually to be found in the pictorial scene in the predella below. In an age that is less biblically or historically literate than the High Victorian, reading and interpreting the ‘speaking group’ in each of the thirty-eight windows poses a demanding challenge today. It is often easiest to start with the predella scene as it is at eye level to the viewer, before moving upwards to the relationships and hierarchy of the trio of figures above. In a number of cases the internal themes within the group of three figures within a window are part of a wider narrative that embraces the subjects in the adjacent lancets. In the retro-quire, the thematic connections between the fourteen figures actually span all six lancets. Consequently, interpreting each individual window makes serious demands on today’s viewer. It is the main purpose of these three chapters to provide for the first time a window-by-window guide to Benson and Mason’s uniquely ambitious vision, whilst also charting the modifications that Mason made to the Master Scheme.

The route

The whole sequence is laid out as a recommended route that starts in the south quire aisle, crosses the retro-quire to the north quire aisle, and then proceeds westwards down that aisle (Chapter 10) to the north transept (Chapter 11). After the transept the route then enters the nave aisles and proceeds through an alternate sequence of north and south paired lancets to end with the Benson window that is situated next to the west door (Chapter 12).

(a) The retro-quire windows

… will be Apostles, or companions and contemporaries of the same, mentioned in the Apostolic writings. (1887 Master Scheme)227

Architectural grouping

The six windows in the retro-quire are a superb example of the way in which Benson and Mason’s Master Scheme for the stained glass windows utilises Pearson’s architectural space to a complex didactic end. The best place to begin the recommended route is at the altar of appropriately named All Saints chapel, in front of the Gospel narratives in the lower east window e1. From this viewpoint the first four windows of the sequence are now clearly visible to the right and left. They contain twelve seminal figures of the Christian Church in its earliest years. However, from this particular viewpoint, the two single-figure windows n2 and s2 remain out of sight: only when the viewer moves into the quire aisles do these two east windows of Saints John and Stephen (n2, s2) become visible. As we have seen (Chapter 6), their primary function is to be the focal point for their respective aisles throughout the whole length of the building, asserting the two themes of teaching and martyrdom, and so forming a link to the great east window above. But they are also an integral part of the beginnings of the Church History sequence here in the retro-quire; thus the number of seminal early Christian figures increases from twelve to fourteen. These six lancets offer a unique opportunity for the viewer to explore the development of the Christian Church in its first decades, a time beset by controversy, crisis and persecution. In these decades exceptional leaders and writers emerged, eventually producing what would come to be the accepted canon of the New Testament. In addition, these six lancets establish broad underlying themes such as mission, martyrdom and inclusiveness that are developed as the Church History sequence unfolds westwards down the north quire aisle.

The evidence for such a multi-layered interpretation lies in the manner in which the subject matter in the six lancets is laid out within the architectural space of the retro-quire. Saints Peter and Paul, the two dominant leaders in the early Church—who traditionally shared the same date for their martyrdom—are directly opposite each other (n3, s3). The crisis over the admission of the Gentiles at the Council of Jerusalem is placed directly opposite the mission to the Gentiles in the years after St Paul (n4, s4). Woven into each lancet’s ‘speaking groups’ of three figures are the compilers of the Gospels and the Epistles of the New Testament. Finally, by returning to the starting point in front of the Gospel narratives in the lower east window e1, informed viewers can absorb the complexity of the overlapping layers of themes in the windows set out in this retro-quire space which resonate between the south and north windows whilst standing before the narratives of Christ’s birth, death and resurrection.

In reading all the themes and subtexts in this space, there is a great deal of similarity to the challenge that the viewer would have faced at the sanctuary rail in the quire had both of the quire transept windows been completed (Chapter 7). There in the sanctuary, the resonance of a typological sequence focussing on the relationships between the Old Testament events and the Gospel stories and teachings in the north and south quire transept windows would have framed the fulfilment of these themes in the iconography of the reredos and great east window. Here in the retro-quire, the messages of the Gospel narratives are framed by the early years of the History of the Christian Church, containing all the thematic elements that will constantly reappear in the events of nearly two thousand years as they are portrayed in the remaining twenty eight lancet windows.

s3. South Quire aisle south 1: Saints Peter, James the Greater and Mark

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

Both this window and s4 were inserted in 1891, four years after the Cathedral’s consecration. They were given in memory of Thomas Simon Bolitho of Trengwainton, Penzance by Mrs Bolitho and his daughter.228

s3. To the glory of God and in loving memory of Thomas Simon Bolitho of Trengwainton died Sunday 31th July 1887 aged 79.

s3 2. Sanctus Jacobus Major, Sanctus Petrus, Sanctus Marcus.

St Peter, standing, holds the keys of Heaven. St James the Greater holds a pilgrim’s staff and has a scallop shell, a traditional symbol of pilgrimage, in his hat. St Mark holds a copy of his gospel and a quill pen.

s3 1. Domine tu omnia nosti, tu scis quia amo te (Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee) (John 21 v 17).

Christ gives Peter the keys to the kingdom of Heaven. On the left is the youthful St John.

All the saints here are represented with their customary attributes: St Peter with the keys of Heaven, St James the Greater holding a pilgrim’s staff and with a scallop shell on his hat, and St Mark with a gospel and a quill pen.

St Peter’s dominant position in the group is by virtue of Christ’s commission to him to be the rock on which the Church is founded,229 and this forms the subject of the scene in the predella below.230 St Peter was the spokesman of the Twelve, and was promised by Christ that not only would he would be the rock on which the church was to be built, but also that he would be given the keys to the kingdom of Heaven. Also in the predella scene the youthful figure of St John is recognizable on the left, so establishing a link with the adjacent St John window s2.

St James the Greater was an obvious candidate for inclusion in the window that initiates the whole Church History sequence. He was the most prominent of the Twelve after Peter; the brother of John the Apostle, son of Zebedee the fisherman. James was one of those closest to Christ in the Gospel narratives, being present at the raising of Jairus’ daughter, at the Transfiguration, and the Agony at Gethsemane. He was beheaded by Herod Agrippa in AD 44, so being the first of the disciples to suffer martyrdom.231

As we will see so often in this whole sequence of windows, Mason’s concept of such a ‘speaking group’ forces the viewer to search for the reasons for the inclusion of all three figures. After Saints Peter and James the Greater, it would have been predictable to have included a third member of the original Apostles. Instead, St Mark is included, not one of the original Twelve at all, thus inviting a multi-layered interpretation of this group of three. St Mark accompanied Paul on his first missionary journey, with his cousin Barnabas. The foundation of the Church in Alexandria is ascribed traditionally to Mark. Earlier, he was in Rome with Paul and St Peter. He was the author of the first of the synoptic gospels, and based it on Peter’s teaching in Rome. Thus the parallel theme of the evolution of the New Testament canon is centrally placed in this first ‘speaking group’, so establishing a major subtext in the retro-quire windows.

Windows s3 and s4 are therefore best read as a pair because of their shared themes and multi-layered narratives.

s4. South Quire aisle south 2: Saints James the Less, Matthew and Thomas

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

Both this window and s3 were inserted in 1891, four years after the Cathedral’s consecration. They were given in memory of Thomas Simon Bolitho of Trengwainton, Penzance by Mrs Bolitho and his daughter.232

s4. To the glory of God and in loving memory of Thomas Simon Bolitho of Trengwainton died Sunday 31th July 1887 aged 79.

s4 2. Sanctus Mattheus, Sanctus Jacobus Minor, Sanctus Thomas.

St James the Lesser, standing, in Episcopal robes as the first Bishop of Jerusalem. He is holding a bible in one hand and in the other a fuller’s staff, the traditional instrument of his martyrdom. St Matthew holds a bible in his right hand and a scroll, written in (a depiction of) Hebrew in his left hand. St Thomas holds a spear, the instrument of his martyrdom in India.

s4 1. Narrabat per singula quae Deus fecisset in gentibus (He declared particularly what things God had wrought among the Gentiles) (Acts 21 v 19).

Saints James the Lesser, Peter and John receive St Paul and St Barnabas at the Council of Jerusalem.

This window’s predella shows an earlier scene from the Council of Jerusalem than the one that is shown in s11 (see Chapter 9). It represents Saints James the Less, Peter and John as leaders of the Jerusalem Church receiving St Paul and St Barnabas. The main feature is the figure of St James standing upon a raised platform with an ornate throne in the foreground. Behind him are the head and shoulders of Peter and John. St James’ left hand clutches the arm of the throne that symbolises James’ leadership of the Council, whilst his other hand greets Paul and Barnabas.

Thus, St James’ leading role in solving this first major crisis of the early church justifies his dominant position in the ‘speaking group’ of three. He is shown in Episcopal robes as the first Bishop of Jerusalem. He is holding a bible in one hand and in the other his attribute of a fuller’s staff, the traditional instrument of his martyrdom.

s4 also includes an evangelist. St Matthew, with his right hand on a bible, is shown in the same position in the group of three as St Mark in s3. The open scroll written in Hebrew in his left hand emphasises that his gospel was written for the early Jewish Christians.

The third apostle is St Thomas. The episode of him touching the wounds of Christ233 was a recurrent image in medieval and later iconography as it fulfilled one of the main functions of religious art, namely to reinforce articles of Christian doctrine.234 There is a tradition that he travelled to evangelize India,235 and he is shown holding his attribute of a spear, the instrument of his martyrdom in that country.

These two windows, s3 and s4, launch the Church History sequence, and should be read as a pair. This group of saints is unified by the shared themes of their witness to Christ’s ministry, their leadership in the early church, and the evolution of the canon of the New Testament, whilst the subtexts of mission and martyrdom are also present.

Before following the recommended route across the retro-quire to the north quire aisle, a further observation must be made in passing on the two single-saint lancets in the east walls of the aisles.

s2 South quire aisle and n2 North quire aisle: St John the Divine and St Stephen

At the end of the North Aisle is seen St. Stephen, the great Deacon and Proto-Martyr. At the end of the South Aisle. St. John the Divine, two types of saintly character, the one of eager zealous work, the other of patient waiting contemplation, both sanctified by suffering, martyrdom and confessorship …236

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

Window s2 in the south quire aisle was inserted in 1887 for the consecration of the cathedral.237 It was dedicated by his mother and sister to the Revd John Maxwell Lyle, who died at Lis Escop. Window n2 in the north quire aisle was inserted in 1888 in memory of Sir Joseph Rowe, Chief Justice of Jamaica , by Dame Frances Rowe.238

The significance of these two windows as elements of the great east window has already been considered (Chapter 6), but now these two single-saint windows can also be located within the context of the Christian History sequence. All the themes that have been identified in s3 and s4 can now be seen to be relevant in these two windows.

In s2, St John joins Mark and Matthew as the third evangelist in the sequence and as the only apostle with a specific Marian connection.239 He is recognisable as a participant in the scene of the commissioning of St Peter and also as being present in the formulation of the early church as shown at the Council of Jerusalem scene.

In n2, St Stephen fulfils a similar function in the Church History themes by emphasising the themes of evangelizing work and martyrdom in an age of persecution that have already formed the subtexts of the windows in the south transept lancets (Chapter 9, s10s12).

n3. North Quire aisle north 1: St Paul, Mary Magdalene and St Luke

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

This window was dedicated to Dame Frances Ann Rowe and inserted in 1890.240

n3. In affectionate remembrance of Dame Frances Ann widow of Sir Joshua Rowe C.B. who died 28 October 1888 aged 88.

n3 2. Sancta Maria Magdalena Sanctus Paulus Sanctus Lucas

St Paul stands holding a martyr’s palm in his left hand and a sword in his right hand. Below him on the left sits Mary Magdalene, dressed in a tunic and cloak with her usual long unbound hair. In her left hand she holds a jar, the traditional representation of the jar of ointment with which Christ’s feet were anointed. On right sits St Luke, holding in his left hand a quill pen and, in his right hand, a copy of the Bible.

n3 1. Vas electionis est mihi iste (He is a chosen vessel unto me) Acts 9:15.

Saul’s conversion on the road to Damascus. Saul is shown wearing Roman armour and seated on a rearing horse. He is blinded by light, with his left arm stretching up to heaven and his right over his face. In the upper right corner is the hand of God and the inscription Saule Saule quid me persequeris (Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me)? (Acts 9:4). Three servants and soldiers are similarly blinded, while one soldier is being trampled beneath the horse’s hooves.

The iconography of this very important window in the Christian History sequence summarises both the previous windows and sets the themes for the succeeding windows throughout the north quire aisle.

Once again, the composition of the ‘speaking group’ is surprising. The main figure is St Paul, holding his martyr’s palm and his customary attribute, a sword. The predella below shows him as Saul, and his conversion on the road to Damascus.241 Artistically this scene must rank as one of the most successful windows in the whole cathedral. Saul is shown wearing Roman armour and seated on a rearing horse. He is blinded by light, with his left arm stretching up to heaven and his right over his face. The dynamism in the representation of the terrified horse and Saul’s streaming cloak gives the scene enormous vigour. In the upper right corner is the hand of God and the inscription ‘why do you persecute me?’ Three servants and soldiers are similarly blinded, while one soldier is being trampled beneath the horse’s hooves. The narrative of Saul’s conversion and St Paul’s subsequent mission to the Gentiles is clear.

It seems logical to include the last of the evangelists, St Luke, in this group. Luke is shown holding a quill and a copy of the Bible and the evangelist is again in the right-hand position in the group. He was St Paul’s companion and the author of the Acts of the Apostles. If we add Paul’s traditionally attributed thirteen epistles to the four gospels and the Acts, most of the authors of the canon of the New Testament have now been included in the sequence.

The third figure in the group is the surprising inclusion, namely Mary Magdalene. She is dressed in a tunic and cloak with her usual long unbound hair. Her left arm holds a jar, the traditional representation of the jar of ointment with which Christ’s feet were anointed.242 However, the fact that Mary Magdalene became the first person to recognise the risen Christ243 justifies her inclusion here. This scene by the empty tomb of ‘noli me tangere’ was a very popular one in Victorian stained glass windows.244 The Christian doctrine of the Resurrection, the basis of St Paul’s mission, is founded on such appearances of Christ to his followers after his death. Thus the ‘speaking group’ unites the themes of witness, mission and the written word.245

n4. North Quire aisle north 2: St Timothy, Dionysius the Areopagite and Onesimus

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n4 is the last of the six retro-quire windows of the Church History sequence, and was inserted in 1899 by ‘many friends’ in memory of Sarah Pollock Benney.246 Among the figures present in the predella are Timothy’s mother Eunice on the left, kneeling in prayer. She is portrayed with the face of the dedicatee, Mrs Benney, who was the wife of one of the captains of the ships on the River Fal. She contributed generously in the early stages of the cathedral’s building, and at this date (1899) was the only living person to be portrayed in the stained glass windows.

n4. To the glory of God and in memory of Sarah Pollock Benney at rest St Peter’s Day 1897 this window was erected by many friends.

n4 2. Dionysius Areopagus Sanctus Timotheus Onesimus

St Timothy stands vested in Bishop’s robes and holds a length of chain in his left hand while supporting a scroll in the crook of his right arm. Seated on the left is Dionysius the Areopagite, dressed in cloak and tunic, barefooted and carrying a scroll in his right hand. Seated on the right and gesturing to the St Paul window n3 is Onesimus, dressed in a slave’s tunic and barefooted.

n4 1. Opus fac evangelistae (Do the work of an evangelist) (2 Timothy 4:5).

The Ordination of Timothy by St Paul. On the left is Timothy’s mother Eunice, kneeling in prayer. She is portrayed with the face of the dedicatee, Mrs Benney, who was the wife of one of the captains of the ships on the River Fal.

n4 1 detail. Timothy’s mother Eunice, on the left, is portrayed with the face of the dedicatee, Sarah Pollock Benney.

The narrative of this window leads directly on from the adjacent St Paul window, as all three figures were converted to Christianity by St Paul. The predella shows the Ordination of Timothy by St Paul.247 Timothy was a constant companion of St Paul,248 and eventually became the Bishop of Ephesus. In the main panel above, he is portrayed vested in Bishop’s robes, excluding a mitre, and holds a length of chain in his left hand while supporting a scroll in the crook of his right arm. Tradition has it that he was martyred by being stoned or clubbed to death, so the significance of the chain may refer to his periods of imprisonment.

The other two converts by St Paul are both saints in their own right in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. Seated on the left, Dionysius the Areopagite is dressed in cloak and tunic, barefooted with his right hand carrying a scroll. He was a cultured Athenian who eventually became the second Bishop of Athens (52–96).249 Seated on the right and gesturing to the St Paul window n3 is Onesimus, dressed in a slave’s tunic and barefooted. He was a slave of Philemon, who ran away and was converted whilst imprisoned with St Paul.250 A large part of St Paul’s letter to Philemon is a plea for his former owner to take Onesimus back, not as a slave, but as a brother in Christ.251

On the surface the ‘speaking group’ is clearly one of St Paul’s converts who continued the mission after his death, with St Timothy as the obvious dominant figure. However, Timothy had a Gentile father and a Jewish mother. Dionysius was a Greek of some social standing and Onesimus was a slave. Therefore, the window can also be read as a statement of the racial and social inclusiveness of the early church at this stage, and was a direct result of the resolution of the crisis that faced the Council of Jerusalem. It is therefore significant that this window is directly opposite the one dominated by St James the Less, the leading figure at that Council.

(b) The north quire aisle windows

The series is continued with Apostolic Saints and Martyrs from the close of the first century, with typical martyrs, missionaries, doctors, confessors of East and West … 252

The recommended route now continues westwards down the north quire aisle. Unlike the retro-quire windows, this sequence of the Church History is roughly chronological.

As has been shown in Chapter 3, the Master Scheme for the Church History sequence was subject to substantial modification during the second stage of the building of the cathedral through the 1890s and 1900s. The first examples of such modifications occur in the north quire aisle and predate the start of the second stage of building. The correspondence between Mason and Worlledge supplies almost all of the reasons behind Mason’s modifications, and will be dealt with in the analysis of the individual windows.

Architectural constraints

Whereas the architectural setting of the retro-quire works very much to the advantage of its windows scheme and their interpretation, the north quire aisle is almost the opposite. The retro-quire has plenty of light, especially from the south windows: the north quire aisle is north-facing and therefore completely lacking in natural sunlight. Despite the presence of the back of the reredos, the retro-quire has space in which the viewer can freely move backwards and forwards, relating the windows one to another: the north quire aisle is narrow, and it is impossible to stand back from the windows to see each one clearly and to compare one with its neighbours. The north quire aisle seems dark and physically very constrained. Unfortunately, with all of these architectural disadvantages, the interpretation of the north quire windows is further hindered as they contain religious figures that the average viewer today will be very unfamiliar with, and because the inscriptions are all in Latin.

n5. North Quire aisle north 3: Saints Clement, Ignatius and Polycarp

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

Both n5 and n6 were inserted in 1897 by Mary Anna Harriet Wise in memory of her brother Canon Wise of Ladock, who held the stall of St Columb at Truro Cathedral from 1879 to 1896.253

All these architectural disadvantages that beset the windows of the north quire aisle are compounded in the case of n5. The northeast quire transept casts its shadow for most of the day, placing this window particularly in a very bad light.

The predella scene shows St Peter and St Paul teaching St Clement. Clement is shown as a clean-shaven young man being taught by a seated St Peter who has an open book on his knee.  St Paul stands behind St Peter, whilst in foreground below the seat are two closed books. The scene establishes with utmost clarity the oral and written authority for the theme of the apostolic succession in the ‘speaking group’ above. Two years earlier in 1896, Mason’s comment on the scene was I think it would carry on the sequence of the window scheme very well.254 Mason did suggest at the same time an alternative that the predella scene could be the ordination of Clement by Peter and Paul (even though historically incorrect), and of changing the subject of the preceding Timothy window if Chapter thought they might be too similar. This was the first evidence of Mason and Worlledge debating alterations to the Master Scheme of 1887, and is an excellent example of the easy relationship that was evident between the two men. Crucially in this letter Mason establishes his hierarchical principle that the predella ought to be connected with the chief of the three figures above (author’s emphasis).

n5 main scene. St Clement with St Ignatius and St Polycarp

St Clement is the dominant figure in this group, standing in an attitude of blessing, and wearing Episcopal robes and the early form of the papal tiara before it became the Triple Crown.255 His left hand rests on an anchor, the attribute of his martyrdom. He was Bishop of Rome and around AD96 wrote an important letter to the church at Corinth to settle a dispute about the function and authority of the ministers of the Christian Church. It showed for the first time a bishop of Rome intervening effectively in the affairs of another church, and is the first surviving formulation of the idea of apostolic succession.256

St Ignatius was a disciple of St John and became Bishop of Antioch. He is shown also vested in the robes of an oriental bishop (without a mitre). The lion at his feet is the attribute of his martyrdom in about 110. His letters were a significant witness to Christianity in post-apostolic times. He described the Church of Rome as the one founded by Saints Peter and Paul and therefore it was worthy of special reverence. He also emphasised the role of the bishop in each Christian community, a monarchical Episcopal ministry which set the pattern for the future.257

St Polycarp is historically the last of this group of three saints. He was ordained by St John and is shown vested as Bishop of Smyrna. The pot held in his hand with flames refers to the method of his martyrdom at the age of eighty-six in about 155–6. He was a significant link between the time of the Apostles and the earliest Christian Fathers, and the contemporary account of his martyrdom is important evidence for the cult of the saints that emerged as early as the second century.

n6. North Quire aisle north 4: Saints Pantaenus, Irenaeus and Justin

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

Both n5 and n6 were inserted in 1897 by Mary Anna Harriet Wise in memory of her brother Canon Wise of Ladock, who held the stall of St Columb at Truro Cathedral from 1879 to 1896.258

n6 main scene: St Pantaenus with St Irenaeus and St Polycarp.

There can be no difficulty in identifying the intention behind this ‘speaking group’ of leading theologians of the second century. They all contributed greatly to theological debate at a time when the Church lacked firm organisation and structures. The group is dominated by St Pantaenus (died 216). He was appointed head of the vastly influential Catechetical School of Alexandria, which was responsible for the training of theologians, and which influenced many of the early theological controversies.

St Irenaeus is portrayed as a Bishop holding a flaming torch in token of his great work in maintaining the light of truth against various heresies. He was a disciple of St Polycarp and became Bishop of Lyon (died c202). His writings were a major attack on Gnosticism and other heresies, and he was a staunch advocate of the episcopate.259

St Justin is portrayed simply dressed wearing a cloak (his philosopher’s cloak or pallium) with his left hand resting upon an axe, the attribute of his martyrdom. He was born c100 and died c180. His two Apologies and his Dialogue have led him to be termed the first Christian philosopher.260

n6 predella: St Pantaenus preaching to the Indians.

For once, however, the predella does not immediately illuminate why the dominant figure was selected, or reveal the underlying sub-text for the whole group. The scene represents St Pantaenus preaching to the Indians. The saint is shown standing on a board bridging the ship to the land, and the Indian natives are represented by six male figures of varying ages, dark skinned, clad in loin cloths, earrings and necklaces. The manner in which the scene is portrayed, like the Henry Martyn scenes in the Baptistry, says much about Victorian imperialist attitudes in the 1880s. The scene refers to the tradition that the saint did indeed go to India, but it seems an inappropriate selection for a group of such eminent theologians who were not generally associated with missionary activities. It appears that the subject for the original predella design in the Master Scheme was St Pantaenus embarking on his Indian mission from the Alexandrian Catechetical School.261 The donor suggested the present scene as an alternative, and Mason seized on it as giving pleasing variety.262 It is obvious that Mason’s preference to emphasise the theme of Christian Mission once again triumphed over Worlledge’s objections. This was one of only a handful of cases in the glazing of the whole cathedral where the wish of the donor overrode the Master Scheme.

n7. North Quire aisle north 5: Saints Cyprian, Perpetua and Lawrence

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

Both n7 and n8 were inserted in 1898 in memory of Emma Harvey, and were donated by Robert Harvey and the surviving children.263

This is the first of a pair of windows exploring the early Christian martyrs of the third and early fourth centuries, thereby reflecting the theme of martyrdom in the St Stephen window at the east end of the aisle.

The predella shows the moment of St Cyprian’s execution at the hands of a Roman soldier in the Valerian persecution of 258.264 St Cyprian’s presence as the dominant member of the ‘speaking group’ has already been trailed by his inclusion in the south transept lancets (s11 in Chapter 9) as one of the three Christian leaders in acute times of crisis. He is portrayed in the group above the predella as Bishop of Carthage. He was also Bishop Benson’s specialist study, which he started when Head of Wellington College and continued throughout his life265.

n7 main scene: St Cyprian as Bishop of Carthage, with St Perpetua and St Lawrence.

The second martyr is St Perpetua, holding her baby imprisoned with her in 203, whilst the third is St Lawrence in deacon’s robes holding his customary attribute of a gridiron in his left hand and a bible in his right. St Lawrence, like St Cyprian, also appeared in s11 in the scene with the ‘treasures of the church’, and like him died in 258 in the Valerian persecution. St Lawrence was the subject of the first window ever commissioned by Benson in 1856 whilst he was an assistant master at Rugby School.266

As always, the viewer is faced with interpreting why Mason selected this particular group of three and why one figure is given greater emphasis over the other two. There were during these centuries an enormous number of possible martyr subjects for this window. Cyprian’s role as a teacher, writer and leader through crises was far-reaching, and the contemporary accounts of the circumstances of his martyrdom were widely circulated later. Benson’s lifetime study of him was surely an added reason for his prominence in this window and in s11. St Perpetua was a victim of the earlier persecution of Septimus Severus, and again in the contemporary account of her imprisonment, visions and death led to her being venerated as saint for mothers and expectant mothers. St Lawrence’s traditional martyrdom on a gridiron resulted in him being one of the most often portrayed martyrs in medieval and later art. Therefore, the reason these three were chosen would seem to be the effect their martyrdom had on subsequent generations and in establishing the concept of the cult of the saints.

n8. North Quire aisle north 6: Saints Alban, Pancras and Catherine

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n8 was also inserted in 1898 and donated by Robert Harvey and the surviving children: this window was in memory of Samuel Harvey.267

As has already been seen, one of the features of the Church History sequence is the way in which the pairs of lancets within an architectural bay have sometimes to be considered as a theological unity, as in the Peter and James lancets (s3/s4) in the south retro-quire and the Paul and Timothy lancets (n3/n4) in the north retro-quire. In this case, the two early Christian martyr lancets make far more impact when they too are analysed as a pair.

n8 main scene: St Alban with St Pancras and St Catherine.

All three of the martyrs in n8 were traditionally viewed as victims of the Diocletian persecution of 304, and all are shown holding a martyr’s palm. St Alban is standing, clothed in a knee-length tunic, leggings, a cloak and with a circlet around head. His left hand holds a staff in the shape of a cross. Seated to his right is St Pancras, a youth clothed in a long tunic and cloak, with his right hand clutching the hilt of an upright sword. Seated to St Alban’s left is St Catherine, clothed in robes and a white veil and crown. Her right hand supports a bible, her left holds a martyr’s palm with her arm resting upon the edge of her attribute, a spiked wheel.

The parallels with n7 become immediately apparent: the martyrdom of these three saints had a similar impact on subsequent generations of Christians. St Pancras and St Perpetua were two of a number of very young people who chose to die for their faith rather than renounce it: Saints Agnes and Dorothea, for example, were equally highly venerated in later ages. Like St Lawrence in the earlier window, St Catherine became one of the most frequently represented saints in later Christian art, whether it be in statuary, fresco, stained glass or illuminated illustration. Note also that there is an iconographic symmetry in the disposition of these saints in this pair of windows.

n8 predella: The trial of St Alban as a Roman soldier. Albanus coram iudice.

St Cyprian’s dominant position in the group in the earlier n7 has been shown not only as a martyr, but more importantly as one of the most influential of the early Christian Doctors. So why was St Alban considered to be of greater significance than say Catherine or Lawrence? The predella reminds the viewer of the circumstances of his martyrdom. It shows not his execution, as in the adjacent Cyprian lancet, but the moment when he stood as a Roman soldier accused before a judge and his peers for his act in protecting a Christian fugitive priest and taking his identity. Therefore, the reason for Alban’s dominance in this window is that he was the proto-martyr of Britain. His is the first example in these narratives of the theme of Christianity in Britain that is to play such an important part later in the Church History sequence.

n9. North Quire aisle north 7: Saints Helen, Origen and Jerome

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n9 is one of a pair of windows inserted in 1895 and donated by Mrs Smith-Dampier of Jufford House, Winchester. The dedicatee was Sir Edward Smirke, second vice-warden of the Stanneries.268

As already mentioned in Chapter 3, this window was the only major example in the whole sequence of the quire aisles and north transept where the 1887 Master Plan was altered. The whole design for the original n12 was scrapped: its subjects were to have been St Jerome, St Ephraim Syrus and St Leo; with the predella scene St Jerome translating the Bible. A new window of Saints Helen, Origen and Jerome was inserted as n9, and the designs for the remaining three windows in the scheme were moved westwards by one lancet. Significantly, all of these alterations were suggested by Canon Mason in a letter of 1890, only three years after the cathedral’s consecration and five years before this window was donated.269 In the following extract, Mason’s system of window numbering is not the current nomenclature, which has been inserted in brackets).

I should like to say that I have slightly altered the list of subjects. I ought perhaps to have put the proposed alterations formally before the Chapter [author’s emphasis]. I felt that the crisis of the conversion of the Empire needed more recognition than it had in my original scheme, and so I cut out the window No 8 (n12) which you mention, and between 4 (n8) St Alban and 5 (n10) St Athanase I inserted a new No. 5 (n9) representing St Helen attends by Origen and St Jerome, with the Invention of the Cross for the predella. I do not know whether I need enter at present into the further reasons for this change.

This is the first recorded instance of the dominant role that Mason was to play in the evolution of the cathedral’s windows (and indeed many other features in the cathedral) over the next fifteen to twenty years. The sense of ownership that Mason already had over the Master Scheme of 1887 is shown by his phrase my original scheme, and confirmed by the fact that he was proceeding with his modifications without putting them formally to Chapter.

In a later letter270 we actually have Mason’s own words giving his reasons for dropping St Leo from the sequence, and for putting Helen with Origen and Jerome together as a ‘speaking group’.

I much fear that St Leo will have to go, though I have struggled hard to retain him. His see is, I think, well represented by St Clement at one end of the first series and St Gregory at the other, whereas there is no figure to represent the Empire unless one puts St Helen, and I felt it was wrong to leave out St Origen as I had at first done. Origen’s connection with Mammaea,271 and St Jerome’s with the great ladies of Rome,272 and that of St Helen with Origen’s and Jerome’s Palestine seemed to give reasons for making these three up into a group.

It is worthy of comment that Mason gives a gender reason as one of the themes of this group; a suitable riposte to many modern criticisms that the whole sequence is too male-orientated.

The battle of Milvian bridge, which secured Constantine’s victory, has already been identified in the Master Scheme as one of the great crises in early Christian history in the south transept window (Chapter 9 s12), so perhaps it justifies St Helen’s place as the dominant figure over that of Jerome, one of the Latin Doctors. In the window, she is shown with a crown indicating her status as Empress, mother to Constantine (c). The predella below shows the traditional story of St Helena finding our Saviour’s cross in Jerusalem. In the foreground the cross of Christ indicated by INRI on the paper trapped beneath it. Helen stands crowned and in prayer in the background, whilst a woman is being healed of her illness by contact with the true cross according to popular legend. Her imperial endorsement of the Church in Jerusalem made the city a new centre of world pilgrimage.273

n9 main scene: St Jerome.

In the grouping, St Origen () is portrayed dressed in a robe and cloak, his eyes downcast. His right hand holds a quill pen, his left arm rests upon a book marked De Principus, one of the first philosophical expositions on Christian doctrine.274 His importance is two-fold as a biblical scholar and speculative theologian.275 St Jerome () is shown vested in Cardinal’s hat and robes, his hands hold a quill pen and a book symbolising his most important claim to fame, his translation of the Latin Vulgate version of the Bible. A lion lies to the right of his feet, reflecting an erroneous tradition as Jerome’s tame companion whilst in prison.276

n10. North Quire aisle north 8: Saints Athanasius, Basil and John Chrysostom

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n10 was the second window to be inserted in 1895, donated by Mrs Smith-Dampier of Jufford House, Winchester and other members of the family. This is dedicated to John Lucius Dampier, Vice-Warden of the Stannaries Court.277

With the insertion of the new n9, the final three lancets in the north quire aisle sequence are now located one window westwards from their original position in the Master Scheme.

n10 2. To the glory of God and in memory of John Lucius Dampier Vice Warden of the Stannaries Court his children dedicate this window.

St John Chrysostom.

This ‘speaking group’ consists of three of the Greek Doctors, each clad in bishop’s robes of the Eastern Orthodox Church. St Athanasius (), Patriarch of Alexandria, is in the dominant standing position with his right hand raised in blessing, his left holding out an open book. He was the champion of the true Christian faith against the Arian heresy, whose supporters formed the dominant political party in Alexandria. They were responsible for the initial persecution and deposition of Athanasius. The predella scene represents the return of St Athanasius to Alexandria from exile. He is shown wearing Eastern Orthodox vestments, riding on a donkey and carrying a bible. The scene has an astonishing resemblance to the traditional depiction of the entry of Christ into Jerusalem, even to the palms in the background and the cloaks on the ground under the donkey’s feet.

n10 1. In Alexandriam intrat S: (Sanctus) Athanasius (St  Athanasius enters Alexandria)

The return of St Athanasius to Alexandria from exile. He is shown wearing Eastern Orthodox vestments, riding on a donkey and carrying a bible. The scene has an astonishing resemblance to the traditional depiction of the entry of Christ into Jerusalem, even to the palms in the background and the cloaks on the ground under the donkey’s feet.

St Basil (), bishop of Caesarea, was similarly a strong opponent of Arianism, but he also played a dominant part in the organisation of monasticism in the East, and his rules for monastic life were imitated and adapted to local conditions in the West.278 St John Chrysostom (), archbishop of Constantinople, was renowned for amongst other things his asceticism, and is here portrayed as one racked with physical suffering. He is shown holding his attribute of a beehive (shared with Sts Bernard of Clairvaux and Ambrose) a tribute to the power of his eloquence.279

Measured in terms of their theological legacy, this grouping of three Doctors represents one of the most powerful in the whole Church History sequence, yet, with the exception of n23 (John of Damascus) and s16 (Methodius) it will be the last time that figures from the Eastern Church will be represented in the Church History sequence.

n11. North Quire aisle north 9: Saints Ambrose, Augustine and Monica.

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n11 was inserted in 1891 and donated by Canon Thornton in memory of his wife Mary Louisa Thornton.280

n11 2. To the glory of God and in loving memory of Mary Louisa Thornton died October 1 1889 aged 64 years in peace

S: (Sanctus) Augustinus S: (Sanctus) Ambrosius S: (Sancta) Monnica

St Ambrose, vested as Archbishop of Milan, stands in front of the archepiscopal throne wearing bejewelled orphreys and gloves and holding a scourge in his right hand. Below him on the left sits St Augustine vested as Bishop of Hippo including mitre, and gloves. His right hand clasps a crozier held diagonally and his left holds up a heart with a flame leaping from the top. On the right sits St Monica, the mother of St Augustine, dressed in a robe, cloak and widow’s veil. Her right hand lies across an open book on her lap; her left hand holds a veiled monstrance.

The sequence now switches back to the Western Church with two more of the Latin Doctors. St Ambrose (), vested as Archbishop of Milan, wearing bejewelled orphreys and gloves, is placed in front of the archiepiscopal throne holding a scourge in his right hand. Seated to his right is St Augustine (), vested as Bishop of Hippo including mitre and gloves. His right hand clasps a crozier held diagonally and his left holds up a heart with a flame leaping from the top. On the right, St Monica (), the mother of St Augustine, is dressed in a robe, cloak and widow’s veil, gazes across to St Augustine. Her right hand lies across an open book on her lap; her left hand holds a veiled monstrance.

n11 1. Domine Deus miserere mei (Have mercy upon me, O God).

St Augustine and his companions confess their sins to St Ambrose prior to baptism. St Ambrose, clothed as in the upper panel n11 2, holds a crozier and stands on a shallow podium, whilst a bearded figure in the foreground garbed as a Roman kneels before him. This must be the younger St Augustine, though he is shown clean-shaven in the group above, and the female figure in the background is presumably his mother, St Monica.

The predella scene represents St Augustine and his companions confessing their sins to St Ambrose prior to baptism. St Ambrose, clothed as above, holds a crozier and stands on a shallow podium, whilst a bearded figure in the foreground garbed as a Roman kneels before him. This must be the younger St Augustine, though he is shown clean-shaven in the group above, and the female figure in the background is presumably his mother, St Monica. The predella, as so often, affords the clue why St Ambrose is the dominant figure and St Augustine is subsidiary to him. The fact that the scene is Augustine’s baptism ceremony focuses attention on the two recurring themes of succession and sacrament, reminding the viewer of earlier windows of the apostolic succession and holy baptism scenes in the baptistry area. These last three windows in the north quire aisle draw many such themes together. n10 and n11 focus on the Doctors of the Western and Eastern Churches, which also reminds us that they occupy a dominant position in the great east window (E1 see Chapter 6). This window marks the making of Latin Christianity and a chronological point immediately preceding the fall of the Roman Empire.281

The final window in this aisle establishes the theme of monastic activity as a prelude to the next stage in the Church History sequence in the north transept.

n12. North Quire aisle north 10: Saints Benedict, Antony of Egypt and Scholastica

Donor, dedicatee and insertion.

n12 was inserted in 1901, the last in this section to be filled.282 It was donated by the Family in memory of Canon Francis Vansittart Thornton, who held the stall of St Breca from 1882 to 1895.283

n12 2. To the glory of God and in loving memory of Francis Vansittart Thornton Canon of Truro died April 27 1895 aged 79.

S: (Sanctus) Antoninvs S: (Sanctus) Benedictvs S: (Sancta) Scholastica

The standing figure is St Benedict, clothed in the habit of his order. His right hand rests on a builder’s shovel, probably symbolising his building of the monastery at Monte Cassino, while his left holds a book under his arm. On the left sits St Anthony of Egypt, shown bearded with bare feet and wearing a monk’s habit. A blue tunic is draped over his right arm. St Scholastica, St Benedict’s sister, sits on the right, wearing a nun’s habit including veil and wimple. Her right hand rests on a model of a building, perhaps the nunnery she lived in at Plombariola, near Monte Cassino.

This window draws together the monastic theme that has been present in a number of earlier windows. The first wave of Christian monastic figures is represented by the seated figure of St Anthony of Egypt (), who is shown bearded with bare feet and wearing a monk’s habit. The holiness of his earlier life as a hermit attracted many others and he came out of his solitude to organise them into a community. Athanasius (n8) wrote Antony’s biography.284 The dominant standing figure is St Benedict (), clothed in the habit of his order, his right hand resting on a builder’s shovel while his left holds a book under his arm. The other seated figure is St Benedict’s sister, St Scholastica (), wearing a nun’s habit including veil and wimple. Her right and rests on a model of a building placed in her lap. She was the first Benedictine nun, and as the building does not look like a representation of Monte Cassino, one assumes that it is meant to show her nunnery at nearby Plombariola.

n12 1. Coenobium Casinense fundatur (the monastery at Monte Cassino is founded).

St Benedict building the monastery of Monte Cassino. He holds a scroll and supervises the building activities of several monks

The predella takes up the theme of St Benedict’s monastic activity by showing him building the monastery of Monte Cassino near Naples in 529. He holds a scroll supervising the building activities of several monks. It was here that he planned to reform monasticism and composed his Rule (Regula Magistri), which ever since has established the way of life for monastic communities.285 Again, there is a parallel here to the role of St Basil (n8) in formulating monasticism in the Eastern Church.

A footnote to this window is contained in a letter from Mason, showing the extreme care that he took over the composition of his ‘speaking groups’.286 He was still considering keeping St Leo in this design as originally intended in the 1887 Master Scheme. There is, I think, no other name that could give way to Leo’s. St Scholastica, in the Benet window, is indeed not a very great figure in herself; but it is necessary to have someone as a type of her class; and it would spoil the meaning of the ascetic windows to introduce a figure of a different type.

Conclusion to the retro-quire and north quire aisle sequence

This window brings an end to the recommended route of the retro-quire and the north quire aisle. The first five centuries of the history of the Christian Church have been told through a selection of thirty-eight figures and fourteen scenes, producing a multi-layered narrative of interlocking motifs. The prevailing themes of teaching and writing from the St John window and martyrdom from the St Stephen window at the head of each aisle form common threads throughout this first part of the Church History sequence. The formulation of the canon of the New Testament, its translation and interpretation are also consistent themes. The establishment of Christian witness and tradition, the cult of sainthood, and the apostolic succession from the commission of St Peter are central to this sequence. Behind so many of the chosen figures lie many episodes of controversy, crises and persecution. The founding Doctors of both the Western and Eastern Church have been placed in historical and theological context, as has the emergence of monasticism from individual hermits to organised systems.

This set of windows remains a remarkable Victorian vision of the role of key figures of early Christianity in the development of the Church and their legacy. It is unique in its comprehensiveness and its didactic rigour. It was a product of an age that was both biblically literate and informed in matters of church history and theology.

However, there are serious doubts about its effectiveness in the twenty-first century, where such literacy is generally absent. The architectural and aesthetic context of the north quire aisle, with its aforementioned drawbacks of space and light, render the reading and interpretation of these windows difficult. The fact that all the inscriptions are in Latin is a severe barrier today. This must have been a problem that Mason anticipated, for as Clayton and Bell wrote later he [Mason] advises the use of the English form in all of the nave windows.287 Traditional signage is not sufficient to help the modern viewer cope with understanding the complexity of the scheme, and it remains a major challenge to bring Mason’s vision alive today.

References

  1. TC: p 47.
  2. NHJ Westlake A History of Design in Painted Glass, London, 1879, Vol. 1, p.86 is one of the most well-known of the contemporary studies of medieval stained glass of the period.
  3. TC: p 47.
  4. CCRO TCM/1049/3 Letter from Canon Mason 25th June 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  5. TC: p 47.
  6. TDK 1892 : 168 , 18/5/1891. Royal Cornwall Gazette (RCG) 1891-05-14 p 4 and RCG 1891-05-28 p 4.
  7. Matthew 16, v. 19.
  8. John 21, vs. 15–17.
  9. Acts 12, v. 2.
  10. TDK 1892 : 168 , 18/5/1891. RCG 17/5/1891.
  11. John 20, vv. 19–29
  12. James Hall, (JH) : Dictionary of Subjects & Symbols in Art, London, 1996, p. 301.
  13. D MacCulloch : A History of Christianity. (DM) London, 2009, p. 248.
  14. TC: p 47.
  15. Stained glass inventory—Truro Cathedral office.
  16. CCRO TCM/1134 Residentiary Chapter Minute Book, 1889, p.77. RCG 28/05/1891 p 4.
  17. St John 19, vs. 26–27 And from that hour the disciple took her to his own home.
  18. The Church in the West (CintW) : 29th March, 1890. RCG 1890-03-27 p 8.
  19. Acts 9, vs. 1–9.
  20. Luke 7, v. 36.
  21. John 20, vs. 14–18.
  22. Noli me tangere’ appears in fifteen Cornish churches in Victorian stained glass windows (author’s TRUROSEE catalogue of all windows in the Truro Diocese).
  23. DM : p. 116 The positioning of Mary Magdalene with St Paul opposite the Peter window may refer to the tradition of arguments between her and St Peter.
  24. CCRO TCM/1134 Chapter minutes 7th June, 1899, dedication 12th August, 1899. TDK 1900 : p. 168
  25. 1 Timothy 4, v. 14: 2 Timothy 1, v. 6.
  26. Acts 16, vs. 1–3 : Acts 19, v. 22 : Colossians 1, v. 1.
  27. Acts 17, v. 34.
  28. Colossians v.4, 9.
  29. Philemon, v. 15.
  30. TC: p 48.
  31. CCRO TCM/1134 Chapter Minute book, insertion 6th March, 1897. TDK 1898 : p.155.
  32. CCRO TCM/1049/1 Letter from Canon Mason 9th July, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge: I feel half inclined to suggest a much more debateable subject for the predella of the other window—the ordination of Clement by St Peter and St Paul! If in the Timothy window the predella were changed the two subjects would not be too much alike. If it would be too unhistorical to represent Clement as ordained (not necessarily made bishop) by St Peter and St Paul, he might at any rate be represented as a young man listening to them.
  33. CCRO TCM/1172 p.198. RCG 3rd March 1897.
  34. DM : p. 132.
  35. DM : p. 134.
  36. CCRO TCM/1134 Chapter Minute book, insertion 6th March, 1897. TDK 1898 : p.155.
  37. DM : p. 143.
  38. DM : p. 142.
  39. TC: p 48.
  40. CCRO TCM/1049/1 Letter from Canon Mason 9th July, 1896 (Canterbury) to Chancellor Worlledge: It was very good to hear of Miss Wise’s proposal. I do not see why you should be so sceptical about the mission of Pantaenus to India. Jerome’s account is doubtless full of blunders, which he has needlessly introduced into what he translated from Eusebius; but I think Eusebius’ statement is quite clear and self consistent and I see no more reason for doubting it than for doubting almost any other fact for which Eusebius is our sole existing authority. Artistically I think the sailing for India (or arrival in India) will give a pleasing variety; and historically I think it an even more profitable point to seize than the mastership of the Catechetical School.
  41. CCRO TCM/1134 Chapter minutes 15th April, 1898. RCG 14th April, 1898. TDK : 1899, p.158. Insertion, donor, dedicatees reported in Cornishman 1898-11-10 p 7.
  42. Under an edict of 257, all Christian clergy were required to sacrifice to the gods, and in the following year failure to do so was made punishable by death.
  43. ACB 1, vol 1, 167: April 1867, at the suggestion of Professor Lighfoot finding he was losing his hold on ecclesiastical studies, he took up the subject of Cyprian for his own private reading. This was eventually published in 1897: Edward White Benson St Cyprian; His Life, His Times, His Work. MacMillan.
  44. WCA, 59–61 : letters and cartoons between Benson and A Lusson of Paris, February–October 1864. HT Rhoades A guidebook of Rugby School Chapel, George E Over, 1913, Part 3.
  45. CCRO TCM/1134 Chapter minutes 15th April, 1898. RCG 14th April, 1898. TDK : 1899, p.158.
  46. CCRO TCM/432 Cathedral Local Building committee minutes October,1895. TDK : 1896, p. 163. RCG 1895-08-29 p 6.
  47. CCRO TCM/1049/1 Letter from Canon Mason (7. Trinity Square, London) to Chancellor Worlledge, 6th November, 1890.
  48. CCRO TCM 546/9 Letter from Canon Mason (7. Trinity Square, London) to Chancellor Worlledge, 27th July, 1891.
  49. Empress Mammaea, mother of Emperor Alexander Severus, engaged Origen as her son’s tutor.
  50. c382 St Jerome was in Rome fostering a movement of Christian asceticism amongst a group of Roman ladies. Amongst others, Paula and Eustochim later followed him to Palestine.
  51. DM : p. 194.
  52. Origen was a special interest for Mason: NCA DD/716/69/4 Diaries of Canon Mason , 8/7/1881. Reading articles on Origen and 2/5/1882, and reading Origen’s “De Principus.
  53. DM : pps.150–3.
  54. DM : p. 295.
  55. CCRO TCM/432 Cathedral Local Building committee minutes October, 1895. TDK : 1896, p.163. RCG 1895-08-29 p 6.
  56. DM : p. 209.
  57. JH : p. 171.
  58. CCRO TCM/1134 Chapter Minute Book 5th January, 1891.
  59. DM : pps. 303–306.
  60. CCRO TDM /1901 : p. 33.
  61. CCRO TCM/1134 Chapter minutes 6th March, 1901.
  62. DM : p. 205.
  63. DM : p. 317.
  64. CCRO TCM/546/9 Letter 28th July, 1891 from Canon Mason (7. Trinity Square, London) to Chancellor Worlledge.
  65. CCRO TCM/590/16 Letter 7th February, 1900 from Clayton and Bell to Canon Worlledge.