Stained glass windows in Cornwall by the Plymouth firm of Fouracre

Michael G Swift

Contents

  1. Acknowledgements
  2. Introduction.
  3. A. The early history of Fouracre & Son.
  4. B. Fouracre & Watson in Cornwall, .
  5. C. Fouracre & Son in Cornwall, .
  6. D. The rise and decline of a provincial glass studio.
  7. Appendix 1. Fouracre windows in Cornwall: .
  8. Appendix 2. Additional work by Fouracre in Cornwall: .

Acknowledgements

We are indebted to Graham Naylor of Plymouth Library for providing the initial inspiration for this article and for allowing us access to his Fouracre research before publication of his book.1 Chris Knight of St Austell Brewery provided invaluable assistance over the window in the Ship Inn, Fowey. Finally, we have received much help and encouragement from many incumbents, churchwardens, municipal staff and officers of Masonic Lodges in Cornwall.

Introduction

marked the day when, in the full view of the nation’s press, Truro emerged from being a provincial market town to become a county town and cathedral city. The Prince of Wales led a procession of almost six hundred Cornish Masons through a series of triumphal arches to the ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the first Church of England cathedral since the Reformation. The arches were designed by the Truro architect, Silvanus Trevail, and included a Masonic arch.178 A little-reported fact on this most prestigious event of Cornish pride was that the heraldic devices on the arches were made by the Devon firm of Fouracre & Watson.179 John Fouracre, like Silvanus Trevail,180 was a prominent Mason. His firm had already established a strong foothold supplying stained glass in Cornwall since , and would continue to dominate the Cornish market for a further thirty years. This article is the first detailed survey of their work in the county.

A. The early history of Fouracre & Son.

John Thomas Fouracre. Copyright © Plymouth Library.

John Fouracre () established the firm of Fouracre & Son at 29 Chapel Street, Stonehouse, Plymouth in .1 The Plymouth Directory listed Fouracre and son John as ‘decorator and plumber’, and by they employed eight men and four boys. His son, John Thomas Fouracre (), was soon involved in stained glass, and the Directory listed Fouracre & Son as ‘artists in stained glass’. Their first documented windows were completed in the following year.

In , the firm was awarded the commission for glazing the Great Hall of Plymouth Guildhall. Fouracre made nine of the windows and the London studio of Heaton, Butler & Bayne the remaining five. This was a remarkably ambitious narrative series of historical four-light scenes such as Catherine of Aragon, Drake and Napoleon.184 One was a Masonic window, and JT Fouracre’s Masonic connection was probably behind the award of the commission to such a new local firm.

JT Fouracre was assisted in this work by Henry Watson (), from Newcastle upon Tyne, who had previously worked in Exeter as a glass stainer. He joined the firm in time to work on the Plymouth Guildhall commission. Contemporary sources list Fouracre as the designer with Watson responsible for the painting of their windows185. In the following year, the firm was renamed Fouracre & Watson, under which name it traded until . Fouracre & Watson’s reputation was enhanced when they won a Bronze award at the Paris Exhibition and Fourth in order of merit award in at Melbourne.2 By then, they employed twenty men and eight boys.

Fouracre & Watson advertisement, about . Copyright © Grace’s Guide to British Industrial History.

B. Fouracre & Watson in Cornwall, .

There were no resident professional stained glass studios in Cornwall until the 20th century, when the artist Leonard Pownall moved from London to Falmouth in .3 Local stained glass windows were made by the Cornish amateur, Revd William Willimott, who made all the windows at his churches of St Michael Caerhays and Quethiock, as well as several other windows at various locations,4 between and . Otherwise, during the 19th century, all new windows inserted in Cornwall were imported from elsewhere; the earliest by William Wailes of Newcastle5 and, in one case, even from France.6 The professional London studios, however, dominated the Cornish market throughout the 19th century, led by Clayton & Bell after they were awarded the commission for all the windows in the new cathedral at Truro in .7 Hardman of Birmingham and Lavers & Barraud were popular in the mid-19th century, and various West Country studios such as Horwood of Mells,8 Bell of Bristol and Beer and Drake of Exeter all figured prominently.

The establishment of Fouracre’s studio in Plymouth in the early 1870s, however, changed the picture. Cornwall had, for the first time, ready access to a reliable supply of stained glass windows from a studio that was on the county’s border of the Tamar and at prices that usually undercut those of the more prestigious competition up-country. It is significant that the firm advertised under the subheading West of England Stained Glass Works, Stonehouse.186

Unfortunately, there are no archival sources of records of the firm; one can only presume their important archive, which must have been vast, was lost during the Plymouth Blitz. Sadly, they never signed their windows. All information on Fouracre’s Cornish windows is therefore based on secondary sources such as parish and Diocesan records, Faculty applications and newspaper accounts, together with the author’s detailed records and photographs of all Anglican, non-Anglican and secular stained-glass windows in Cornwall.9 Occasionally, attribution of a window to Fouracre can be based on artistic style and reference to authenticated windows elsewhere.

Fouracre & Watson’s windows in Cornwall : a summary.

In these sixteen years Fouracre & Watson inserted 138 windows in over fifty Cornish buildings, from Anglican churches and non-Conformist churches to municipal buildings and one Masonic Lodge. They were also responsible for eight restorations of earlier glass and various ecclesiastical decoration schemes.

Distribution, reputation and publicity.

As would be expected, the geographic distribution of Fouracre & Watson’s commissions in Cornwall shows a marked concentration in churches in the southeast of the county nearer their studio in Plymouth: about 75% of their commissions in their first decade were east of Bodmin, and only 25% in the west of the Duchy.

If the award of the commission for the Guildhall in Plymouth owed something to Fouracre’s Masonic connections,187 there is further evidence that such links were important in Cornwall. In the same year as the Plymouth commission, three windows for the Masonic Lodge in Penzance were made by ‘Br. Fouracre’. Also, amongst the earliest Cornish windows made by Fouracre were for Maker church (South aisle east, Vestry east, Vestry north), and the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, Provincial Grand Master of the Cornish Masons. The Earl was Chairman of the Executive Committee for the new Truro Cathedral, and was certainly instrumental in securing the commission for the heraldic devices on the triumphal arches built for the foundation-laying ceremony.

There is also evidence that Fouracre & Watson actively sought publicity in Cornwall for their products. They first exhibited in the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic annual exhibition in Falmouth, when a panel of the Plymouth Guildhall windows was shown. The following year they showed examples of imperishable mural painting on ordinary tiles.11 Fouracre & Watson’s status in Cornwall was surely enhanced when they won First Silver award at the exhibition for the Jubilee of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic in . The Exhibition Report contains the following:- The Ornamental Art Section, within the entrance, contained a screen of the choicest examples of stained glass that has ever issued from the studio of Fouracre & Watson of Stonehouse.12 There is no evidence from the list of exhibitors that any other studio exhibited stained glass. In the same year, , they also exhibited ‘a painted window’ at the Penzance Polytechnic exhibition.13

During this period, Fouracre & Watson won some prominent commissions to restore ancient medieval glass. The Chancel east window at Cotehele Chapel in was followed by the St George window at St Neot in and the panels of medieval glass in the South chapel east window at St Kew two years later. In , they were contracted to re-insert the William Warrington glass of from the old St Mary’s Truro into the new St Mary’s aisle of John Loughborough Pearson’s new Truro Cathedral.14

Iconography.

The iconography of their 138 Cornish windows has been grouped into decorative windows (no human representations); figurative windows (static figures) and narrative windows (usually of a biblical scene).

Decorative windows (including armorial subjects):43
Figurative windows:59
Narrative windows:34
Unknown subjects:2
Total:138

‘Decorative windows’ covered a wide range of subjects from cheap decorative motifs in some non-conformist chapels to expensive armorial panels such as in Launceston Guildhall. One striking fact is that there were more than twice as many figurative subjects as narrative windows. One explanation of this is that narrative windows tend generally to be more expensive than figurative iconography, many of whose elements such as architectural canopies and plinths can be mass-produced. Figurative subjects are also capable of being repeated elsewhere with alterations to colour, face painting, etc. by re-using existing cartoons.

Development and changes in artistic style.

Bodmin, One and All Masonic Hall, Entry hall south. Memorial to Sir Hugh Henry Molesworth. In the centre are the arms of Molesworth, and around the border are various Masonic symbols.

In their early years, it is difficult to detect an artistic ‘house style’ for Fouracre & Watson. Their first Cornish windows, for the Masonic Hall at Bodmin in , are remarkably assured in design and in armorial painting. From the start their style for religious windows was rooted in the mid-Victorian Gothic Revival, particularly for figurative subjects with the obligatory architectural canopies and plinths. A closer study of the 138 Fouracre & Watson Cornish windows, however, shows a surprising eclecticism in their use of artistic styles. One of the earliest sets of windows, at Marazion (North aisle 1 North aisle 2, North aisle 3) were in a very similar style to the London firm of Lavers & Barraud, even down to the choice of colour. Similarly, in , their North aisle 3 window at Davidstow was very much in the style and colour of Ward & Hughes.

Within a short space of time, their windows began to show some influence of William Morris’ studio, particularly in the use of vegetative backgrounds. Such backgrounds at Fowey, South aisle west, and St Euny, Redruth, Tower west, resemble those frequently employed by Morris & Co., and by the early 1880s foliage panels became part of Fouracre & Watson’s house style. Another feature that emerged in the same period was the use in their inscriptions of a white Gothic script on a black background, again very much in the style of Morris & Co. Fouracre could duplicate in his own way something of the Morris style that was popular at the time—and probably at a fraction of the cost. One suspects that Fouracre and Watson were familiar with the local windows of Morris & Co, such as their major window at Tavistock.190

A further Morrisian influence was in the adoption of either pre-Raphaelite or Aesthetic style for the figures. The foliage backgrounds were pre-Raphaelite in origin, and some of Fouracre’s female figures are decidedly pre-Raphaelite, such as Mary Magdalene at St Euny, Redruth, Chancel east. However, many of Fouracre’s figures increasingly reflected the more generalised aesthetic designs that Burne-Jones employed for Morris & Co. after , and at Landrake, Chancel south, in all the elements are combined with the pre-Raphaelite Mary Magdalene, aesthetic angel, foliage panels and a Morris-style inscription.15

Two Fouracre Cornish windows, however, stand out from this studio house style. The windows at St Newlyn East Chancel east (, Christ blessing the meek) and Bodmin South chapel east (, Christian virtues—case study, see below) exhibit a high degree of social realism in their depiction of the dispossessed and virtuous. The Bodmin faces are taken from the dedicatee’s family, and the dispossessed in the St Newlyn East window have a degree of realism in the face painting that is exceptional for this studio. In both windows, a more muted colour palette than usual is used and, although both have foliage panels, the overall effect sets these windows apart from the rest of their Cornish commissions. Both windows were large and expensive; the St Newlyn memorial window to Revd Thomas Hopkins Britton cost £230.

In common with practically all Victorian glass studios, Fouracre & Watson regularly re-used cartoons—such measures cut their costs, and adjustments to colour and painting usually disguised the fact that they were not original designs. For example, the early Charity at Marazion North aisle 2 () with an improbably large garment held up in front of a kneeling half-naked child, became Dorcas in Mabe North aisle 1 in and was also re-used at St Mary, East Looe, West in .16

Linkinhorne North aisle 2 King DavidSt Mabyn North aisle 3 King David

Left: the central light of Linkinhorne North aisle 2 and, right, the central light of St Mabyn North aisle 3, showing re-use of the design for King David.

Similarly, the cartoon for the King David window in Linkinhorne North aisle 2 () was used again in in St Mabyn North aisle 3. The most impressive reuse of an original design was at Looe Guildhall Council Chamber south 2, where the landing of the Huguenots at Looe is a replica of the same scene of a landing at Plymouth in the original Plymouth Guildhall commission.188

If we accept that JT Fouracre was the Firm’s designer, with Henry Watson being responsible for the painting, what conclusions can be drawn from the eclectic mix of Fouracre & Watson’s Cornish windows in this period? The most significant is the quality of Watson’s face-painting. Whilst some figures, notably Christ and allegoric female figures, are stereotypically late Victorian portrayals, it is surprising how many of the faces seem painted from life, from the earliest Davidstow windows (North aisle 3, ) onwards. Even the allegoric figures such as the Faith, Hope & Charity in Fowey South aisle west in have a pre-Raphaelite realism with the donor family obviously used as models in the central light. Secular commissions such as Looe Guildhall, , show the same vigorous, life-like depictions.

The firm’s narrative windows have a certain stiffness in posed tableaux that do not raise them above the average late-Victorian product, with the notable exception of the late window at Launceston Wesleyan Institute in . But the exquisite detail in many traceries, such as St Mabyn North aisle 2, and particularly the figure face-painting are very characterful and individual, and a tribute to Watson’s skill as a glass painter and Fouracre as artist-designer.

Fouracre & Watson’s Cornish windows coincided with two important developments in the religious life of the county. The establishment of the new Diocese of Truro in led to a revival in High Church and Anglo-Catholic practices in many Cornish churches. However, one can see very little evidence of High Church influence in their windows, but this was not the case in their windows in the Plymouth region.189 In fact, it would be honest to say that there is more evidence of Masonic influences in the awarding of commissions than any Ritualist tendencies in their iconography.

At the same time, the growing interest in Cornwall’s early Christian heritage was behind one of their most prestigious commissions, that of the clerestory windows at Fowey (case study—see below). Sadly, this theme did not figure much in their later work.

Case studies

Finally, four of Fouracre & Watson’s most significant Cornish windows will be considered in detail.

Fowey clerestory windows,

The commission for nine clerestory windows in St Fimbarrus, Fowey in memory of Revd Dr Edward John Treffry17 proved to be a significant stage for Fouracre & Watson in their attempts to break into the Cornish stained glass market. The total cost was only £140, but the firm’s reputation was enhanced in Cornwall by association with the Treffry family, and this was further enlarged when they won a major award at the Jubilee of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic exhibition at Falmouth in the following year. Contemporary reports emphasise the prominence of the Masonic Lodge in the dedication service at Fowey, providing yet another piece of evidence of the part Fouracre’s Masonic connection played in the firm’s fortunes in Cornwall.18

This was the only occasion when Fouracre & Watson received a commission for clerestory windows in Cornwall, and their designs show how they responded to the particular difficulties that such windows present. It was essential that as much light as possible was allowed in, so all the twenty-seven saints are presented against a plain diamond diaper pattern with the faintest of stained foliage motifs. By contrast, the saints’ clothing is richly coloured, whilst each nimbus is plain or again lightly stained. The tiled floors are sharply angled to maintain the perspective when viewed from the church floor. Again, recognition of each figure’s identity is helped by having their names engraved in large font on scrolls. There was some controversy overy why the clerestory windows were chosen as memorial windows rather than a single window in the main body of the church but, apparently, that was the dedicatee’s wish, as was the choice of subject matter.

The subjects chosen by the fundraising committee were the first representations of Cornish saints in stained glass in 19th century Cornwall. The didactic nature of the choice was remarked upon at the time.

All the figures in the windows are emblematic of the local and English national saints, and also include the Irish and Welsh national saints. St Patrick and St David are said by old historians to have visited Cornwall about the 5th century, and were followed by a number of other Irish and Welsh saints, all of whom are also depicted, so that the clerestory windows are really representative of the ancient British Church which was in existence centuries before the time of St Augustine. Thus, in inserting these windows is shewn the continuity of the English Church from the earliest ages of Christianity.19

Sanctus Germanus, Sancta Dwyn, Sanctus Petrocus.

Fowey, South clerestory 5. St Germanus is shown dressed as Bishop of Auxerre. St Dwyn holds a sprig with green leaves on it. St Petroc is shown dressed as a bishop, with a dragon at his feet.

Two thirds of the saints are directly associated with Cornwall. The difficulty of integrating the Cornish Christian saints with the later Rome-based Augustinian tradition exercised many in the Cornish Anglican church in these decades.20 A quarter of the saints are portrayed as bishops with crozier and mitre. The traditional saints have familiar attributes, such Nicholas’ three golden balls and Catherine’s wheel. The attributes of the ‘Cornish’ saints contain some oddities, such as Petroc’s dragon and Wenn’s basket of flowers. Finally, the inclusion of Old Testament temple-builders (Solomon and the Hirams) was probably a reference to the Treffry involvement in the recent restoration of the church in . Such subjects would pass unnoticed today but presumably were of significance to the more biblically-literate Victorians.

Bodmin Lady Chapel east,

Figure 1. Lady Chapel east.

This six-light window was Fouracre & Watson’s largest single commission in Cornwall, set in a very prominent position in Cornwall’s largest medieval church. The window is dedicated to Mrs Clara Gilbert and was donated by her widower, Revd Walter Raleigh Gilbert, whose family owned the Priory, Bodmin. Mrs Gilbert was the daughter of John Michael Williams of Caerhays Castle. This commission shows again Fouracre’s connections to some of the most important and influential families in Cornwall.

This most ambitious window shows a mixture of Fouracre’s familiar design and artistic styles together with some highly individual features. Below a tracery of angels gathered around a crowned centre angel holding a reaping hook, the main six lights show six Christian virtues set above six Biblical characters, whilst along the base are six predella panels showing a scene from the life of the biblical character above. Below each of the twelve main figures is a typical Fouracre panel of foliage, and the inscription is Fouracre’s usual white gothic script on a black background.

Light Virtue Biblical character Predella
a Fortitude Esther Esther before the King.
b Patience Anna Presentation in the Temple.
c Faith Elizabeth Ann and Blessed Virgin Mary.
d Hope Syrophoenician woman Woman beseeching Christ to cast out devil.
e Charity Dorcas Comforting the sick.
f Purity Blessed Virgin Mary Annunciation to the BVM.

The colouring of the window is rich and varied, with sufficient use of white glass to allow enough light in and prevent the whole being too gloomy. Among the unusual features is the use of photographic likenesses to portray Mrs Gilbert and her sisters in the representations of Charity, Faith, Hope, Fortitude and Patience. It looks as if her children’s likenesses are used in the Charity light with their mother as well.

The window, and in particularly the predella panels, suffer from a severe loss of paint detail, a defect unusual for Fouracre’s windows, and this seriously detracts from the window’s effectiveness. Happily, this window was spared an epidemic of vandalism that struck many of the church’s windows in the early 2000s, but sadly lost the Esther predella in to further vandalism.

Draynes mission church

Completely at the other end of the social scale was the set of nine small windows inserted in in the ‘iron’ mission church at Draynes on the edge of Bodmin Moor in the parish of St Neot. These consisted of nine panels of nine female saints together with individual panels of nine attendant angels. To have stained glass inserted in ‘iron churches’ was extremely rare, and to have nine such windows must be almost unique. The church was built to serve a mining community that was equidistant from St Neot and St Cleer parish churches, but sadly it lasted only fifteen years.

Figure 2. St Margaret of Antioch, with the dragon out of which she escaped.

The windows are lively and colourful, simple and direct in execution. Quirky details include St Margaret’s dragon in purple, green and blue; Catherine’s wheel; Barbara’s tower; Cecilia’s organ: and, on trays, the breasts of Agatha and the eyes of Lucia. Strangely Agnes is not accompanied by her usual lamb. One would like to know why nine female saints were chosen and who paid for them?

Brampton angel with viol.Draynes angel with viol.

Figure 3. Angel with viol. On the left, the version in the tracery of the Annunciation window at St Mary Magdalene, Brampton, Huntingdonshire, inserted the year before the version at Draynes, on the right.

The accompanying angels are similarly colourful and simple. All float on stylised waves, and have assorted musical instruments (including a Burne-Jones long trumpet!), crowns and a chalice. The designs for the angels are based on the tracery angels in Fouracre & Watson’s masterpiece Annunciation window at St Mary Magdalene, Brampton, Huntingdonshire, commissioned by the eighth Earl of Sandwich. Here at Draynes the crudity of the angels’ wings betrays the lack of money behind an iron-church commission.

The following comment was made in an editorial21 on the opening of the church:-

We believe clergy would do well to make their churches and services warm and bright with colour. Poor people love it. It lifts them out of unlovely surroundings. It helps them in reverence, and it seems to us that abuses are no more likely to creep in there than in the awful formality and deadness of many low and slow churches. Spirituality and beauty go hand in hand.

Setting aside the patronising Victorian views about society and class pervading this extract, there can be no doubt that Fouracre & Watson succeeded in creating windows that fulfilled these criteria. Thankfully, these little gems were saved when Draynes church closed, and are to be found installed in the three south aisle windows at St Cleer parish church.

The Ship Inn, Fowey, Armada window

Ye Shippes of Fowey Haven preparing to welcome ye Armada.

The Ship Inn, Fowey, Dining Room. Across the top are, from left to right, the arms of the Duchy of Cornwall, the arms of Purcell (the vicar of Fowey from from to was Revd Handfield Noel Purcell), and the emblem of Fowey.

The dining room at the Ship Inn contains an impressive three-light window of ‘Ye Shippes of Fowey Haven preparing to welcome ye Armada.’ We believe this to be a Fouracre & Watson window on several grounds. The subject matter is very similar to the Drake window that was in Plymouth Guildhall181 and the Armada window at Looe Guildhall, both confirmed Fouracres. The Drake figure is remarkably like the figure in front of the Ship Inn, and the background painted harbour scenes at Looe are artistically very similar to those of Fowey harbour. Also, the face painting in both Armada windows is identical.182

Main scene of Looe Guildhall, Council Chamber north 2Left-hand light of Fowey, Ship Inn, Dining roomCentre light of Fowey, Ship Inn, Dining room

Left, the main scene of Looe Guildhall, Council Chamber north 2 and, on the right, the left and centre lights of the window in the Dining Room of the Ship Inn, Fowey, showing the stylistic similarities.

Dating the Ship Inn window is difficult as it was not inserted in this building until the 1960s.183 Originally the window was in Fowey Vicarage, and in the centre of the armorials at the top of the window are the arms of the Vicar, Revd Handfield Noel Purcell. His long incumbency, from to , covered the period of Fouracre & Watson so, in the absence of any archival evidence, we propose an insertion date of and suggest that it may well have been commissioned for the tercentenary of the Armada in . If our attribution is correct, this Armada window is a valuable addition to Fouracre’s secular work, and the story of its survival is remarkable.

C. Fouracre & Son in Cornwall,

John Thomas Fouracre’s partnership with Henry Watson ended in when Watson retired to Kent. The firm reverted to its old title of Fouracre & Son, and JT Fouracre went into full partnership with William David Snell (). Snell had originally joined the firm as an apprentice, being listed in the Directories as a ‘stained glass artist’. JT Fouracre finally retired from the firm in and died in , leaving Snell in sole charge until his death in .

Edwin Phillips joined WD Snell in the 1920s and eventually became principal designer until . Fouracre & Son amalgamated with Osborne & Son in , now ‘painters and decorators’, under the title ‘Osborne and Phillips (Fouracre & Son)’. The term Fouracre & Son was last used in 1942, and Osborne and Phillips continued into the 1960s.22

Fouracre & Son’s windows in Cornwall after : a summary

By comparison with the earlier Fouracre & Watson years, Fouracre & Son’s Cornish output fell significantly in these forty-nine years. They inserted 87 windows in over forty Cornish buildings, including Anglican churches, non-Conformist churches, and two Masonic Lodges. They were responsible for only one restoration of earlier glass.

The general picture in Cornwall was that stained-glass insertions by all studios peaked in the 1880s, then progressively fell in the following decades. The demand for war memorial windows after provided only a temporary respite, and from then onwards demand continued to decline. The pattern for Fouracre & Son’s output in Cornwall was similar, in that their total number of insertions fell from a peak in . The demand for municipal commissions seems to have almost dried up completely.23 Except for commissions from one Wesleyan Chapel and the Cathedral school in Truro, Fouracre & Son did not benefit from the demand for World War Ⅰ memorial windows at all in Cornwall, where over 35 such windows were inserted by other studios after .24

Fouracre & Son were not awarded any prizes in exhibitions and there is no evidence that they participated in any after . The earlier Masonic connection was, however, maintained with the insertion of Masonic windows at the Penzance Mount Sinai Masonic Hall in and Liskeard St Martin’s Masonic Hall in .

Fouracre & Son’s output after shows a notable reliance on return commissions to churches with earlier Fouracre & Watson windows (Lanivet: five new windows, St Austell: six, Charlestown: three, Budock: one, and Upton Cross: three). In the years after , their new windows became concentrated in the southeast of the county, nearer to their home base in Plymouth: the two churches at Saltash (St Nicholas and St Stephen-by-Saltash) had six new windows after . Finally, there is increasing evidence that the firm was accepting more non-conformist commissions than in the days of Fouracre & Watson.

Iconography.

F. & Son F. & W.
Decorative windows (including armorial subjects):3143
Figurative windows:3159
Narrative windows:2534
Unknown subjects:02
Total:87138

The earlier dominance of figurative over narrative subjects continued after , probably for the same economic reasons as before. Some of the cheaper decorative windows were for non-conformist commissions where there is often no record of the actual number of windows inserted in each building. Whilst there were the occasional prestigious commissions, like the St Germans Chancel north 1 window, the Silvanus Trevail Chancel east memorial window at Luxulyan, and the Launceston Guildhall window commemorating the visit of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall, much of their output after was less demanding than that in the Fouracre & Watson years and at the cheaper end of the market.

Figure x. Launceston Guildhall. Commemoration of the visit of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall in

Development and changes in artistic style.

Henry Watson’s departure, and his replacement as chief glass painter by WD Snell, resulted in noticeable changes in the firm’s artistic style. Some of the earlier ‘house style’ features, such as the white Gothic script on a black background, generally remained consistent. Pre-Raphaelite Morrisian foliage backgrounds and panels became gradually less prominent, replaced by more conservative architectural canopies in white glass. Similarly, the wide range of colours that characterised Fouracre & Watson in the 1880s gradually became much more muted after . It must be said that such artistic changes were common to many glass studios in these decades, reflecting changes in public taste generally. The appointment of Snell and the approaching retirement of Fouracre coincided with the firm’s designs becoming less eclectic and more predictable. Another design change was the increased prominence of ‘encrusted pearls’ in the clothing and background furnishings. Narrative designs gradually became stiffer and even more tableaux-like. Finally, as the new combination of Fouracre and Snell moved into the twentieth century, the quality of face-painting that had been such a feature of Watson’s work diminished markedly. These changes are evident in the two windows inserted at Phillack: South aisle 3 in and North aisle 2 in . Neither is a particularly poor window, but both are lacking in the quality that was so often evident in Fouracre & Watson’s earlier windows.

Thus it is obvious that, so far as Cornwall is concerned, the standards set by Fouracre & Watson gradually slipped in the years before . This is also apparent in the increased use of repeat cartoons before and after the retirement of JT Fouracre in . Duloe’s North chapel north 1 Good Samaritan narrative window design reappears as the main subject in Lanivet’s North aisle 2 of . The two lights in Charlestown Tower west in of the ‘Church Militant’ and the ‘Church Triumphant’ reappear with hardly any alteration in Penwerris Chancel east in with the inscriptions ‘Fortitude’ and ‘Plenty’. Three of the four lights in the narrative scenes in St Stephen by Saltash North aisle 2 in reappear as ‘sowing, reaping and gleaning’ predellas at South Hill North transept north in and again at Landulph South chapel east in .

St Stephen by Saltash North aisle 2, left-hand light.South Hill, St Sampson, North transept north left-hand predella.Landulph, St Leonard, South chapel east.

Left, the left-hand light of St Stephen-by-Saltash North aisle 2, centre, the left-hand predella of South Hill North transept north, right, the left-hand predella of Landulph, South chapel east, showing re-use of the design for the sower.

Photographs copyright © www.asnapintime.co.uk, used with permission of Ryan Smith.

The left-hand predella of Mylor Chancel north (), Christ stilling the waves, was reused in the right-hand light of Grampound Nave south 1 (). The second and third lights of Landrake Chancel south, (), the three Marys at the tomb, were reused interchanged at St Erney in the second and third lights of North aisle east, (). Interestingly, some reused cartoons are from the earlier Fouracre & Watson years.

Case studies

Finally, some of Fouracre & Son’s more significant Cornish windows over three decades will be considered in detail.

St Germans:

Figure 4. South Chapel (Chantry) east: centre. St Germanus and two angels holding banners on which are written I have fought a good fight and I have kept the faith (both from Ⅱ Timothy 4:7).

Fouracre received three commissions for windows at St Germans. The first, in , was to complete the South Chapel east glazing. This was an unusual arrangement of three 3-light Decorated windows, where the two lower windows had been glazed some ten years earlier with indifferent stained glass by other studios. Fouracre & Watson supplied the upper window with a St Germanus attended by two angels as a memorial for the Eliot family of Port Eliot.

Figure 5. Nave west, upper centre. St Germanus, dressed as Bishop of Auxerre, wearing a mitre and holding in his left hand a crozier. In his right hand he holds a model of a building, probably Auxerre Cathedral.

The superior quality of this commission was repeated in with another commission from the Earl of St Germans to fill the small high Romanesque windows in the west wall with figures of early Priors of St Germans. The designs show Watson’s usual characterful figures and, in the highest three lights, the use of much white glass (as in the clerestory at Fowey) solves the problems posed by their small size and location so high above the nave floor.

To·the·Glory·of·God and·in·loving·memory·of Thomas·Henry·Geake, born·April·3rd·1823,·died·July·1st·1897. R.I.P.

Figure 6. Chancel north 1.

Figure 7. Chancel north 1, tracery. A tau rho staurogram surrounded by four seraphs and four angels

Figure 7. Chancel north 1, main panels. St Thomas à Becket, St Thomas the Apostle, St Thomas Aquinas.

Their final window at St Germans was in , and proved to be one of the most significant products of Fouracre & Son. Pevsner remarks that it was clearly influenced by the Burne-Jones chancel east window25, an immense late-Morris window of five lights with a massive tracery of angels and ten main figures, dominating the chancel space. It is very much to Fouracre’s credit that they could produce a design for the adjacent window that complements Burne-Jones’ window without being a pale imitation. One feels that many of the features of the earlier Fouracre & Watson designs were employed. The colour tones of their tracery angels match those of the Morris. Room for Morrisian foliage motifs, originating from Henry Watson’s era at Fouracre, was found in the tracery. The strong characterisation of the three SS Thomas (à Becket, Apostle, and Aquinas) in its own way parallels Burne-Jones’ designs as a challenge to the typical late Victorian stereotypical depictions (as used in the next Chancel window by Clayton & Bell).

One must conclude that these prestigious commissions at St Germans inspired the Fouracre firm to produce some of their strongest designs. All three windows were a response to the particular challenges of their context within the church, whether it be adding to two earlier windows in the east chapel, the demanding Romanesque settings of the west wall, or being next to one of the most significant aesthetic windows in the whole of the Southwest. Fouracre & Watson and Fouracre & Son at their best!

Lanivet sequence: to

The most extensive Cornish commission for Fouracre & Son was for the parish church of St Levet at Lanivet, where six three-light windows were inserted between and . The first was a Fouracre & Watson design, but the remaining five windows continued in the style of the earlier windows, thus maintaining the sense of artistic unity in the church.

Figure 8. Chancel east. Nativity : Crucifixion : Ascension.

Three of the windows were donated by the Sobey family who were obviously instrumental in securing the commissions to the Plymouth firm. The iconography suggests that a scheme might have been behind the choice of subject matter. The prime position of the earliest window in the Chancel east is the typical combination of Adoration of the Magi, Crucifixion and Ascension appropriate for its position above the main altar. The remaining windows on the west and north walls show a combination of Old Testament figures (Noah, David, Abraham, Samuel and Melchizadeck) with New Testament saints (Peter, John, James) and Gospel narratives (Good Samaritan and Suffer Little Children). Although this does not in itself constitute an integrated, didactic, typological scheme, it suggests that only three years after the publication of Bishop Benson’s Master Plan for the new Truro Cathedral, at least one parish was thinking of establishing some sort of order to the iconography of new commissions rather than appeasing the demands of the donors. The choice of Old Testament figures (Abraham, Rebekah and Daniel) to illustrate Faith, Hope and Charity indicates a willingness to include an element of Typology in Lanivet’s iconography. Within only a few years these trends were greatly extended in Father Parsons’ didactic scheme for his windows at Crantock.26

To·the·memory·of·William·Sobey born··died··late·of·Treliggon·in·this·parish

Figure 9. North aisle 1. SS John, Peter, James.

Figure 10. North aisle 1. Left-hand predella: Angel of Divine inspiration appears to John. Centre predella: Christ’s commission to Peter.

Figure 11. North aisle 1. Centre predella: Christ’s commission to Peter. Right-hand predella: Christ with James and servant carrying tray of fruit.

Suffer little children and forbid them not to come unto me for of such is the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 14:19).

Figure 12. South aisle west.

Some of the differences between the Fouracre & Son windows and the earlier Fouracre & Watson show Snell’s influence on changes in the firm’s style from onwards. The first window (North aisle 1) shared the figure of St John the Evangelist with Watson’s window. Whereas Watson’s St John still had elements of aesthetic style in its face and clothing, Snell’s St John is a very standardised depiction. Similarly, the Morrisian vegetative panels were replaced by stylised decorative panels that could come from any non-Conformist chapel. Also, the borders round the heads of the lights were now neither architectural nor decorative, but rather garish rose and crown motifs. To its credit, the predella panels are much better, particularly St John receiving divine inspiration from an impressive angel, and a shepherd St Peter receiving his commission to look after Christ’s sheep. In the same year, a Suffer Little Children (South aisle west) lacks any real character despite incorporating a depiction of members of the donor’s family.

To the memory of John Slyman Henwood of Tremoor born died , and of Catherine Cole his wife born died erected by their children in affectionate remembrance.

Figure 13. North aisle 2. Scenes from the parable of the Good Samaritan.

Figure 14. Lanivet North aisle 2 tracery. Two angels holding palm fronds. Very similar to the tracery in Lanivet North aisle 3.

In the following year, , a Good Samaritan (North aisle 2) shows a return to traditional canopies and plinths, framing quite a dynamic portrayal of the three main episodes, with some imaginative face-painting of the victim and unusual ‘layered’ skies. In addition, the tracery angels are of decent quality. Unfortunately, they were repeated identically in the tracery of the next window the following year!

In memory of John Sobey of Treliggon in this parish born , died and Elizabeth his wife born , died .

Figure 15. North aisle 3. Faith (Abraham) above Abraham and Isaac : Charity (Rebekah) above Rebekah giving camels water : Hope (Daniel) above Daniel praying (Holy City?)

Figure 16. North aisle 3. Tracery. Two angels with palm fronds (very similar to NA2trac).

Figure 17. North aisle 3. Left predella: the angel stops Abraham killing his son Isaac (Genesis 22:11–12). Centre predella: Rebekah gives water to the camels (Genesis 24:10–20).

Figure 18. North aisle 3. Centre predella: Rebekah gives water to the camels (Genesis 24:10–20). Right-hand predella: Daniel kneeling in prayer.

The North aisle 3 window is iconographically the most interesting of the firm’s Lanivet windows. The standard trilogy of allegorical figures of Faith, Hope and Charity is represented by the Old Testament Abraham, Rebekah and Daniel. The rose and crown borders at the light heads are back, however, and the vegetative panels are now minimal in content and interest. As with North aisle 1, however, the predella panels are the most interesting features, particularly the sacrifice of Isaac, mirrored by Abraham sharpening his knife in the main panel above.

To the Glory of God and in memory of Charles Sobey of Stephengelly in this parish, born , died .

Figure 19. North aisle 4. Samuel, St Nicholas, Melchizedek.

The last window (North aisle 4), was inserted in and has none of the redeeming features of some of their earlier windows in the church. The main Old Testament figures are very standardised, even the St Nicholas cartoon which is much inferior to Watson’s design at Newlyn (South aisle 3), and the predella scenes have little individuality. One must conclude therefore that overall this sequence shows a deterioration in the quality of the firm’s output in both design and execution in the five years since Watson’s departure.

Luxulyan Trevail memorial window:

Ten years after the last Lanivet widow, Fouracre & Son received the commission for a memorial window at St Ciricius & St Julitta, Luxulyan. Donated by his sister, Laura Rundle, the window was in memory of the Cornish architect and entrepreneur27 Silvanus Trevail, who tragically committed suicide in . His death shocked many throughout Cornwall, and the commission for this window was highly prestigious. It may well be that Fouracre was chosen simply because it was the nearest thing to a Cornish stained-glass studio that the county had.

Figure 20. Chancel east, 2a. St Stephen holding a martyr’s palm frond and the stones with which he was put to death, and St Laurence holding a martyr’s palm frond and a gridiron, on which he was martyred.

Figure 21. Chancel east, 3b. St Paul, holding a sword, and St Peter (possibly a likeness of the dedicatee, Silvanus Trevail), holding the keys and a book (a reference to his Epistles).

Figure 22. Chancel east, 2b. St Catherine, holding a sword and with her hand resting on a wheel, and St Ursula holding a book and an arrow.

The new four-light Chancel east window consisted of eight biblical figures, four from the Old Testament, four from the Gospels, and eight martyrs and teachers of the Church.28 The tracery shows Christ in Majesty with two censer-bearing angels, and the lowest panels of each of the main lights are four angels bearing scrolls with inscriptions. The window is undoubtedly impressive, but gives the overall feeling of being a very crowded design. The saints are crammed together in overlapping pairs framed by white glass canopies. Sometimes, as in Stephen and Laurence, the attributes (rocks and a gridiron) make the space even more crowded. Peter’s keys and Paul’s sword are absurdly exaggerated, as are Catherine’s wheel and Ursula’s arrow. The face-painting is competent but entirely lacking in Watson’s individuality, whilst the best that can be said of the choice of colours is that they are entirely appropriate to the solemnity of the dedication.

Liskeard Masonic Lodge:

Figure 23. East 3. St Martin of Tours divides his cloak in two with his sword to give half to the beggar.

This commission was for four narrative windows depicting the social characteristics of the Masonic Order. According to contemporary records Fouracre & Son were chosen after designs from leading London studios had been carefully considered.29 The windows are remarkable for several reasons. Their narrative form30 is less common than figurative subjects in Fouracre designs, and they suggest Acts of Charity subjects that may have been in the windows of churches elsewhere, but not in Cornwall. The cost of each window is listed as about £100, so this was a prestigious commission. The borders are full of detailed Masonic iconography of the relative ranks of the donors, far more than in their earlier Masonic Lodge windows, proof that the Masonic links with the firm continued after the death of Fouracre himself. Was Snell a Mason as well? Artistically, the windows show a sparkling return to a richer colour palette in both the main panels and the surrounding borders. The St Martin panel has a life and vigour that is missing in the other tableaux-like panels and shows a strong feeling for the Renaissance style.

The glazing of St Austell parish church’s north aisle,

St Austell parish church is one of the most impressive ‘town’ churches in Cornwall. Most of its stained glass was inserted during progressive restorations and embellishments after , and it is instructive to see how the firm of Fouracre fared against competition from London firms. The four south aisle four-light windows (South aisle 1, South aisle 2, South aisle 3, South aisle 4) were all glazed with ambitious and extensive narrative scenes by ER Suffling, who also provided two other windows (South chapel south 3, Vestry north) elsewhere in the church. Similarly, Mayer supplied three windows (Chancel east, South chapel south 2, Tower west) and C E Kempe (South aisle west) completed the glazing of this part of the church. Fouracre was not chosen for any of these windows, but was selected to glaze the six north aisle windows and one in the vestry with decorative patterns set in cathedral glass.31 They were obviously regarded as not being up to the challenge of such large narrative windows.

Joseph Hammond, LLB: B.A. Vicar of S. Austell and Honorary Canon of Truro Cathedral

Figure 24. North aisle west. Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary and Nativity.

Fouracre & Son were called in to re-glaze the north aisle west window in , and produced one of their weakest designs—an Annunciation and Nativity swamped by architectural canopies, stereotypical angels and the darkest of colour tones.

Further commissions in to produced better windows in North aisle 3 to North aisle 1 respectively with a welcome return to a brighter colour palette in the twelve saints and predella scenes. It is rather sad that the commission for the final window of the sequence (North aisle 4) went to the studio of Heaton, Butler and Bayne in , after Snell’s death, ironically completing the cycle which started with the two firms vying for the commission for Plymouth Guildhall in at the start of Fouracre’s career.

Lanreath,

Lanreath, south aisle west. The Ascension.

The three-light south aisle west window at St Manarck, Lanreath, inserted 21 years after the Luxulyan Trevail memorial, is the last extant Fouracre window in Cornwall.32 It was designed only months before Snell was succeeded by Edwin Phillips. The only element of the Fouracre house style is the retention of their gothic script, but now black on white. 20% of the window is made up of canopies above and below the main scene. The Ascension subject is treated very conventionally, with Christ in a mandorla-style frame and five apostles plus the Virgin Mary. The sky is layered, and the background of trees, plants and foliage is very stylised—a world away from the earlier pre-Raphaelite vegetative backgrounds pre-1900. Basically, the design is still grounded in the framework of the 19th century Gothic tradition, with very little evidence of the Arts & Crafts advances in stained glass that by were already thirty years old.

D. The rise and decline of a provincial glass studio

There are obvious dangers in extrapolating hard and fast conclusions from a sample such as Fouracre’s windows in Cornwall, and there may well be significant differences in their windows elsewhere in the Southwest. The Cornish windows cover more than 150 commissions for over two hundred windows. They were made over nearly seventy years by a firm that saw major changes in the personnel involved in design and manufacture. This conclusion has attempted to chart the rise and decline of the Fouracre firm based upon their work in Cornwall, set within the context of a record of all stained glass inserted in the county.33 There may yet be a few more Fouracre windows in Cornwall waiting to be discovered, but we can say with confidence that most have been included.

The Fouracre firm was typical of many provincial glass studios that arose in the 1870s to satisfy an increasing demand for stained glass in the Established Church, in the non-conformist churches and, with the emergence of local government institutions and educational establishments, in municipal buildings, libraries and colleges. All are represented in Fouracre’s Cornish windows. Whilst the first-division studios,34 many based in London, were the prime candidates for securing the big commissions in the county, there was a niche waiting to be filled for a small, local studio that could usually undercut the prices of the big firms.35 Fouracre & Watson could obviously supply a window that approximated to one in the style of the William Morris studio at a fraction of the cost, but as we have seen their designs were also eclectic enough to satisfy a demand for a wide range of artistic styles. We must remember Cornwall’s relative poverty compared with many English regions with wealthier Victorian donors.

In their first decade, Fouracre were undeniably ambitious, and actively promoted themselves both locally, nationally and internationally. They were fortunate in that for Devon west of Exeter and the whole of Cornwall they had no competition whatever for over thirty years. JT Fouracre utilised his Masonic contacts in both Devon and Cornwall to secure several prestigious commissions that enhanced the firm’s reputation. Demand for the firm’s religious and secular windows in Cornwall grew throughout the 1870s and ’80s.

The 1890s saw a marked change in the firm’s fortunes. Throughout the years up to , overall demand for both religious and secular stained glass commissions gradually fell away in Cornwall. After the boom decades of the late 19th century, there were simply fewer windows to fill in Anglican churches. Cornwall, and Devon (excluding Plymouth), was predominately a rural landscape of villages with small sized towns, so few new churches were being built. Finally, most ancient churches had by the late 19th century been restored and were already filled with new glass. The same was true for nonconformist and municipal commissions.

Fouracre still had no local competition, but the glazing of the new Truro cathedral which started in saw a massive increase in large and small Clayton & Bell commissions in the county.36 Significant changes in the firm’s style and design occurred, coinciding with the departure of Watson, the promotion of Snell, and the age and imminent retirement of JT Fouracre himself. Basically, after the firm became less willing or able to respond to demands for any artistic style other than Gothic, and Fouracre’s windows were increasingly conservative. Instead of offering a ‘Morris-style’ design, Fouracre’s designs progressively resembled the products of Charles Eamer Kempe, a first-division studio that had many imitators. Numerous Kempe windows had been inserted in Cornwall in this period, and a major commission like the thirteen new windows required for the restoration at Crantock in turned to Kempe’s pupil CE Tute of London rather than the Fouracre alternative in Plymouth.37

The demand for stained glass also reflected further changes in artistic tastes. The last William Morris window in Cornwall was at Flushing Chancel east (), whilst some significant Arts & Crafts windows were already being inserted in Cornwall: Mary Lowndes at St Erme Chancel east (), Louis Davis at Michaelstow Chancel east (), and Robert Anning Bell at Paul Chancel east (). These paved the way for more Arts & Crafts windows in the county after , particularly by Veronica Whall. Also, Fouracre now had a local competitor in the shape of Leonard Pownall of Falmouth with his first window at Penryn ().

The causes of the ‘decline’ of Fouracre & Son can be therefore be summarised under the headings of changes in demand, competition and artistic taste. An unknown factor might well have been the effect of the war on the availability of skilled labour in the firm. Whatever the combination of factors, Fouracre suffered the same fate of most of both the first-division studios and the provincial studios in the aftermath of . What would be most illuminating is to test whether these conclusions on the rise and decline of the firm of Fouracre in Cornwall are matched by a survey of their windows in their home county of Devon.38

Appendix 1. Fouracre windows in Cornwall: .

Bodmin, One and All Masonic Hall
  1. Entry hall south, , single light, Central panel of setsquare, level and plumb with foliage background surrounded with diaper pattern and border of masonic imagery. (D).
  2. Entry hall south, , single light, Molesworth arms in centre surrounded by diaper pattern of masonic images and a border with “H”, “M”, and pythagoras triangles. (D).
  3. Entry hall south, , single light, Central panel of setsquare and Pythagoras’ theorem triangle with foliage background surrounded with diaper pattern and border of masonic imagery. (D).
Bodmin, St Petroc
  1. South Chapel east, , six lights,
    3a. Fortitude 3b. Patience 3c. Faith 3d. Hope 3e. Charity 3f. Purity
    2a. Esther 2b. Anna the prophetess 2c. St Elizabeth 2d. Syrophoenician woman 2e. Dorcas 2f. Blessed Virgin Mary
    1a. Esther before the King 1b. Presentation in the Temple 1c. Salution (Ann and the BVM) 1d. Woman beseeching Christ to cast out devil 1e. Comforting the sick 1f. Annunciation
    (FA).
  2. South Chapel south 2, , four lights, Decorative panels : roundels on diaper of rose/vine (D).
  3. South aisle 4, , four lights, Decorative panels : roundels on diaper of rose/vine (D).
  4. North aisle 4, [unknown date], four lights, Decorative panels : roundels on diaper of rose/vine (D).
  5. North aisle 1, , four lights, Decorative panel ; roundels on diaper of crown, rose, fleur de lys and initials WHL. (D).
Botus Fleming, St Mary
  1. Chancel south 1, , two lights, Annunciation (N).
Boyton, Holy Name
  1. Nave north 2, , three lights, Adoration of the shepherds (N).
Bude, Wesleyan Chapel
  1. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  2. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  3. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  4. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  5. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  6. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  7. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  8. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  9. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  10. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  11. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  12. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  13. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  14. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  15. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
  16. [unknown location], , Geometrical pattern. (D).
Budock, St Budock
  1. North aisle west, , three lights, Inscriptions on geometric patterns : “Lift up your hearts : We lift them up unto the Lord : Holy Father Almighty, Everlasting God”. (D).
Calstock, St Andrew
  1. Chancel east, , three lights, The call and martyrdom of St Andrew (patronal saint of the church) (N).
Camborne, Wesleyan Chapel
  1. [unknown location], , Pretty designs. (D).
Cardinham, St Meubred
  1. South aisle 4, , three lights, Decorative roundels (D).
Charlestown, St Paul
  1. South aisle 1, , single light, Purity - BVM (FH).
  2. South aisle 3, , single light, Solomon (Justice), holding a model of the Temple at Jerusalem. (FH).
  3. South aisle 4, , single light, Miraculous draught of fishes with Agnus Dei above. (N).
  4. Tower west, , two lights, Two female figures: the “Church Militant” and the “Church Triumphant". (FA).
  5. North aisle 2, , single light, St Paul with IhS and Alpha/Omega (FH).
  6. North aisle 1, , single light, Prophet Elias (Elijah) (FH).
Davidstow, St David
  1. North aisle 3, , three lights, Suffer little children (N).
Downderry, St Nicholas
  1. Chancel south, , single light, Angels above St Michael slaying dragon (N).
Draynes, St Agatha
  1. [unknown location], , single light, St Margaret of Antioch (FH).
  2. [unknown location], , single light, St Catherine (FH).
  3. [unknown location], , single light, St Lucy (FH).
  4. [unknown location], , single light, St Cecilia (FH).
  5. [unknown location], , single light, St Agnes (FH).
  6. [unknown location], , single light, St Agatha (FH).
  7. [unknown location], , single light, St Barbara (FH).
  8. [unknown location], , single light, St Buryan (FH).
  9. [unknown location], , single light, Blessed Virgin Mary (FH).
  10. [unknown location], , single light, Angel playing viol. (FA).
  11. [unknown location], , single light, Angel playing harp. (FA).
  12. [unknown location], , single light, Angel playing long trumpet. (FA).
  13. [unknown location], , single light, Angel holding chalice. (FA).
  14. [unknown location], , single light, Angel playing ?psaltery. (FA).
  15. [unknown location], , single light, Angel playing lute. (FA).
  16. [unknown location], , single light, Angel playing harp. (FA).
  17. [unknown location], , single light, Angel holding palm frond. (FA).
  18. [unknown location], , single light, Angel holding crown. (FA).
Duloe, St Cuby and St Leonard
  1. North Chapel north 1 (Bewes aisle), , three lights, Three scenes from the parable of the Good Samaritan (N).
Falmouth, Wesleyan Chapel
  1. [unknown location], , Christ with the Doctors in the Temple (N).
Fowey, St Fimbarrus
  1. South aisle west, , three lights, Faith : Charity : Hope (FA).
  2. South clerestory 1, , three lights, SS Fimbarrus : Catherine : Nicholas (FH).
  3. South clerestory 2, , three lights, SS Andrew : Wenn : Salvadore (FH).
  4. South clerestory 3, , three lights, SS Blasius : Ia : Sampson (FH).
  5. South clerestory 4, , three lights, SS David : Burian : Cadoc (FH).
  6. South clerestory 5, , three lights, SS Germanus : Dwyn : Petroc (FH).
  7. North clerestory 4, , three lights, SS Hiram : Solomon : Hiram Abiff (FH).
  8. North clerestory 3, , three lights, SS Trillo (Teilo) : Ursula : Feock (FH).
  9. North clerestory 2, , three lights, SS Geraint : Nonna : Biranus (FH).
  10. North clerestory 1, , three lights, SS George : Teath : Patrick (FH).
Fowey, Ship Inn
  1. Dining room, , three lights, Preparing to sail against the Spanish Armada. (N).
Godolphin, St John the Baptist
  1. Chancel east, , three lights, / : Christ : Agnus Dei (FH).
Golant, St Sampson
  1. South aisle 4, , two lights, St Sampson baptising a Cornish chief (“a heathen”) (N).
Goldsithney, Wesleyan Chapel
  1. [unknown location], , three lights, Text with wreath of laurels and angel holding a broken chain (D).
Gorran, St Goranus
  1. Tower west, , three lights, Main lights decorative roundels and borders in plain glass (D).
Grampound, St Nun
  1. Nave south 1, , two lights, Christ rescuing St Peter from the waves : Christ stilling the waves (N).
Helston, St Michael
  1. [unknown location], , Cathedral glass (D).
Illogan, St Illogan
  1. North aisle 3, , three lights, Martha : Christ : Mary (FH).
Jacobstow, St James
  1. Tower, , two lights, External inspection only - only coloured border evident (D).
Kingsand, St Paul
  1. Chancel east, , Woman of Samaria (N).
Landrake, St Michael
  1. Chancel east, , three lights, Crucifixion with two Marys, St John and Centurion (N).
  2. Chancel south, , three lights, Two angels and three Marys at the Tomb. (N).
Landulph, St Leonard and St Dilpe
  1. South Chapel east, , three lights, Bishops Benson : Wilkinson : Gott above predella scenes of sowing and reaping. (FH).
Lanivet, St Nevet
  1. Chancel east, , three lights, Nativity : Crucifixion : Ascension (N).
  2. South aisle west, , three lights, Suffer little children (N).
  3. North aisle 4, , three lights, Samuel above Christ with Elders : Nicholas above Suffer Little Children : Melchizadech above Last Supper. (FH).
  4. North aisle 3, , three lights, Faith (Abraham) above Abraham and Isaac : Charity (Rebekah) above Rebekah giving water to the camels : Hope (Daniel) above Daniel praying (Holy City?) (FA).
  5. North aisle 2, , three lights, Three scenes of Good Samaritan - tending wounds : on ass : paying inkeeper. (N).
  6. North aisle 1, , three lights, SS John above angel of Divine inspiration : Peter above Christ’s commission to Peter : James above scene with Christ with James and female (FH).
Lanreath, St Manarck (Marnach) and St Dunstan
  1. South aisle 1, , three lights, SS Gabriel : George : Michael (FH).
  2. South aisle west, , three lights, Ascension (N).
Launceston, Guildhall
  1. [unknown location], , Armorial (D).
  2. Head of Chamber, , Arms of twelve Mayors (D).
Launceston, Wesleyan Institute (Dingley Hall)
  1. [unknown location], , five lights, Jesus teaching from a boat in the Sea of Galilee. (N).
Lewannick, St Martin
  1. Chancel south, , two lights, Arms of the Archer family (D).
Linkinhorne, St Mellor
  1. North aisle 2, , three lights, Noah : David : Abraham (FH).
Liskeard, St Martin’s Masonic Hall
  1. East 1, , single light, Care for the aged Brother (N).
  2. East 2, , single light, Relief of the widow and fatherless boy (N).
  3. East 3, , single light, Act of self-sacrifice by St Martin of Tours (N).
  4. East 4, , single light, Work of the Royal Masonic Institute for Girls (N).
Looe, Congregational Church
  1. North, , Handsome stained glass.
Looe, Guildhall
  1. Council Chamber north 1, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. Arms of Looe, copied from an old seal.
    2. Centre. Roundel of De Bodrigan, the founder of Looe.
    3. Lower. Arms of Bodrigan.
    (FH).
  2. Council Chamber north 2, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. Arms of Queen Victoria.
    2. Centre. The George leaving Looe harbour for the Armada.
    3. Lower. The arms and motto Veritas (Truth) of Bishop.
    (N).
  3. Council Chamber north 3, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. Arms of the Duchy of Cornwall.
    2. Centre. Roundel of Sir Walter Raleigh.
    3. Lower. Arms of Raleigh.
    (FH).
  4. Council Chamber east 1, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. Crest of Riley.
    2. Centre. Roundel of Walter Connor.
    3. Lower. Arms of Riley.
    (FH).
  5. Council Chamber east 2, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. Crest of Campbell.
    2. Centre. Roundel of King Edward Ⅲ.
    3. Lower. Arms of Campbell.
    (FH).
  6. Council Chamber east 3, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. Arms, supporters and crest of Queen Elizabeth Ⅰ.
    2. Centre. Queen Elizabeth Ⅰ with the Charter that she presented to Looe in .
    3. Lower. Arms of Jackson.
    (FH).
  7. Council Chamber east 4, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. Crest of Kerswill.
    2. Centre. Roundel of King James Ⅱ.
    3. Lower. Arms of Kerswill.
    (FH).
  8. Council Chamber east 5, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. Crest of Childe.
    2. Centre. Roundel of de Taillefer.
    3. Lower. Arms of Childs.
    (FH).
  9. Council Chamber south 3, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. Crest of Pole-Carew of Antony, donor of the window.
    2. Centre. Portrait of Carew, author of Ye survey of Cornwall.
    3. Lower. Arms of Pole-Carew of Antony.
    with “C” in border. (FH).
  10. Council Chamber south 2, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. Arms of King James Ⅱ.
    2. Centre. The landing of the Nicolas brothers at Looe.
    3. Lower. Arms of Nicholas.
    with “N” in border. (N).
  11. Council Chamber south 1, , single light, Set in decorative square quarries:
    1. Upper. The crest of Buller.
    2. Centre. King Arthur, of ye Round Table.
    3. Lower. The arms of Buller.
    with “B” in border. (FH).
  12. Kitchen, , two lights, Arms, crests and emblems (one Masonic) set in decorative square quarries. (D).
  13. Chairman’s office, , single light, Decorative square quarries. (D).
  14. Chairman’s office, , single light, Arms of Thomas set in decorative square quarries. (D).
East Looe, St Mary
  1. Chancel apse, , Annunciation : Nativity (N).
  2. Chancel apse, , Presentation in the Temple; Visit of the Magi (Epiphany) (N).
  3. Chancel apse, , Flight into Egypt : Doctors in the Temple (N).
  4. Chancel south, , Calling the fishermen : Healing the sick. (N).
  5. Chancel south, , Baptism : Temptation. (N).
  6. West, , four lights, Includes Dorcas (N).
Luxulyan, St Ciricius and St Julitta
  1. Chancel east, , four lights,
    1. Noah and Abraham above SS Stephen and Lawrence.
    2. SS Peter and Paul above Catherine and Ursula.
    3. SS John and Mark above Cyriacus and Julitta.
    4. Isaiah and Jeremiah above Jerome and Augustine.
    Four angels with scrolls along bottom (FH).
Mabe, St Laud
  1. North aisle 1, , two lights, Solomon holding temple : Dorcas clothing a naked child (FH).
Maker, St Mary and St Julian
  1. South aisle east, , three lights, Faith : Hope : Charity with three scroll bearing angels (FA).
  2. Tower west, , three lights, Mercy : Righteousness and Peace : Truth (FA).
  3. Vestry north (north aisle), , three lights, Annunciation to the shepherds (N).
  4. Vestry east (north aisle), , three lights, Themes of Resurrection:
    1. Elijah raising the widow’s son above Elijah meeting the widow and her son
    2. Noli me tangere above Deposition
    3. Christ raising of Jairus daughter above Jairus entreating the Lord to raise his daughter.
    (N).
Marazion, All Saints
  1. North aisle 3, , two lights, Moses and serpent (N).
  2. North aisle 2, , two lights, Dorcas clothing the naked and other good works (N).
  3. North aisle 1, , two lights, Mary Magdalene anointing Christ’s feet (N).
Menheniot, St Lalluwy
  1. North aisle 1, , three lights, Three saints specially connected with Menheniot: SS John the Baptist : Christopher : Ladislas (King of Hungary) (FH).
Mullion, Methodist Church
  1. West left, , single light, Birds and vegetation (D).
  2. West centre, , three lights, Texts with plant detail (D).
  3. West right, , single light, Birds and vegetation (D).
  4. Nave north 2, , single light, Decorative patterns (D).
  5. Nave north 1, , single light, Decorative patterns (D).
Mylor, St Melorus
  1. Chancel north, , three lights, St Peter above Christ stilling the waves : Noah above the Flood and the Ark : John the Baptist above John the Baptist preaching (FH).
Newlyn, St Peter
  1. South aisle 2, , single light, St Peter (FH).
  2. South aisle 3, , single light, St Nicholas (FH).
Penryn, Wesleyan Chapel
  1. North, , three lights, Geometrical patterns. (D).
Penwerris, St Michael
  1. Chancel east, , two lights, Fortitude : Purity (FA).
Penzance, Chapel Street Wesleyan Chapel
  1. Lower nave, , two lights, Decorative patterns with foliage background (D).
  2. Lower nave, , two lights, Decorative patterns with foliage background (D).
  3. Upper, side of organ, , single light, Suffer little children (N).
  4. Upper nave, , two lights, Christ teaching the multitude by the Sea of Tiberias : Christ giving sight to the blind. (N).
  5. Upper, side of organ, , single light, Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. (N).
Penzance, Mount Sinai Masonic Hall
  1. Temple window 1, , three lights, Setsquare and Keystone : Seeing Eye and sacred book : Crossed swords and crossed quills : Two setsquares. (D).
  2. Temple window 2, , three lights, Key and Inscription : Seeing Eye and Sacred Book : Crossed swords and Setsquare : Sacred Book and Seeing Eye. (D).
  3. Temple window 3, , three lights, Crossed keys and Inscription : Seeing Eye and Sacred Book : Setsquare and Crossed swords : Lyre and Dove of Peace (D).
Penzance, Primitive Methodist Chapel
  1. All windows, , Cathedral glass (D).
Penzance, St Paul
  1. North aisle west, , three lights, Fleur-de-lys diaper patterns as in Nave west). (D).
  2. North aisle east, , three lights, St Stephen added to centre light of North or South transept, and fleur-de-lys diaper in left and right lights (FH).
Penzance, United Methodist Free Church (Acorn Theatre)
  1. West, , single light, Geometrical patterns (D).
  2. West, , single light, Geometrical patterns (D).
  3. West, , single light, Geometrical patterns (D).
  4. West, , single light, Geometrical patterns (D).
  5. West, , single light, Geometrical patterns (D).
  6. West, , single light, Geometrical patterns (D).
  7. West, , single light, Geometrical patterns (D).
  8. West, , single light, Geometrical patterns (D).
Perranzabuloe, St Piran
  1. South aisle east, , three lights, St John the Evangelist : Good Shepherd : St Peter (N).
Phillack, St Felicitas
  1. South aisle 3, , two lights, Zacharias : Elizabeth (FH).
  2. North aisle 2, , three lights,
    1. Ruth below the anchor of Hope.
    2. Abraham below angel bearing shield with cross of Faith.
    3. Shunammite woman below the flaming heart of Charity.
    (FH).
Pillaton, St Odulph
  1. North aisle east, , three lights, Faith : Hope : Charity (FA).
Port Isaac, St Peter
  1. Chancel east 2, , single light, Crucifixion (N).
  2. Chancel north 3, , single light, St Peter (FH).
Probus, St Probus and St Grace
  1. South aisle 2, , three lights, Moses : Good Shepherd : David. Below - Alpha and Omega, ihs, ChiRho (FH).
Redruth, St Euny
  1. Chancel east, , three lights, Crucifixion in centre light with Good Samaritan and Good Shepherd in roundels on vegetative quarry background in left and right lights. (N).
  2. Tower west, , three lights, SS Paul : Peter : John, with ihs above and vegetation background (FH).
St Austell, Holy Trinity
  1. North aisle west, , four lights, Annunciation : Adoration of the shepherds (N).
  2. North aisle 5, , four lights, Decorative roundels on cathedral tinted glass (D).
  3. North aisle 3, , four lights, St Petrock above preaching : St Austell above baptising : St Martin above cutting cloak : St Piran above baptising (FH).
  4. North aisle 2, , four lights, David above preaching : BVM above Presentation at the temple : Elizabeth above with Mary : Nicholas above intercession for three prisoners about to be beheaded (FH).
  5. North aisle 1, , four lights, St Luke above in prison : St Blaise above martyrdom (beheading) : St Samson above blessed by angel : St Barnabas above collecting taxes. (FH).
  6. Vestry west, , two lights, Decorative roundels on cathedral tinted glass (D).
St Blazey, St Blaise
  1. South aisle east, , three lights, SS Fimbar : Blaise : Petroc with individual scenes below - Fimbar supervising building : Blaise’s martyrdom: Conversion of Roman soldier (FH).
St Dominick, St Dominica
  1. North aisle west, , three lights, Adoration of the Magi (N).
  2. North Chapel east, , three lights, Suffer little children (N).
St Erney, St Terninus
  1. North aisle east, , three lights, Two angel and three Marys at the Tomb (N).
St Erth, St Ercus
  1. South Chapel south, , three lights, SS Conan : Erth : Archbishop Benson (FH).
St Ewe, All Saints
  1. South aisle 3, , two lights, Scenes of baptism (contemporary) and confirmation (medieval) (N).
  2. Tower west, , two lights, SS Philip : Stephen (FH).
  3. Chancel north, , two lights, SS Thomas : John the Evangelist (FH).
St Germans, St Germanus of Auxerre
  1. South Chapel (Chantry) east: centre, , three lights, St Germanus with two angels. (FH).
  2. Nave west, , five lights, Single lancets :- Upper left Conan : Upper centre Germanus : Upper right Leofric. Lower left Willielmus : Lower right Robert (FH).
  3. Chancel north 1, , three lights, St Thomas à Becket : St Thomas Apostle : St Thomas Aquinas (FH).
St Giles in the Heath, St Giles
  1. South aisle east, , three lights, Ascension (N).
St Ives, St Ia the Virgin
  1. South aisle south 1, , three lights, SS Sennen above Christ and shepherd : Ia above Annunciation : Levan above miraculous draught of fishes (FH).
St Just-in-Penwith, St Just
  1. South aisle east, , four lights, Adoration of the Magi : Christ and the Doctors in the temple : Loaves and Fishes : Suffer little children. Lower panels :- Alpha : ihs : Chi-rho : Omega. (N).
St Kew, St James the Great
  1. South aisle 3, , three lights,
    2a. King David 2b. Moses 2c. Elijah
    1a. St Peter 1b. St Andrew 1c. St Paul
    (FH).
  2. Chancel north, , three lights, Ascension. (N).
St Mabyn, St Mabena
  1. North aisle west, , three lights, Arms of Kessell, Prideaux, Boscawen : Flamank, Barrett, Fowell : Winslade, Godolphin, Woollcombe. (D).
  2. North aisle 3, , three lights, King David and two angels (FH).
  3. North aisle 2, , three lights, Arms, crest and motto (Prospice—Look forwards) of Andrew of Tredinnick in centre light (D).
St Martin-by-Looe, St Keyne and St Martin
  1. South aisle 1, , three lights, John the Baptist : Christ as Good shepherd : David (FH).
  2. Nave south, , single light, St Martin (FH).
St Newlyn East, St Newlina
  1. Chancel east, , five lights, Christ blessing the meek and lame (N).
St Stephen-by-Saltash, St Stephen
  1. North aisle 3, , four lights, Light of the World : Bread of Life : I am the Way : Good Shepherd (N).
  2. North aisle 2, , four lights, Sower : Harvest at Bethshemesh : Ruth (N).
  3. North aisle 1, , four lights, Noah : Abraham : Moses : Elijah (FH).
  4. North aisle east, , four lights, Hezekiah : David : Solomon : Josiah : Queen of Sheba : Anointing of Jehu : Crowning of Joash : Esther. (N).
Saltash, St Nicholas and St Faith
  1. South aisle 1, , three lights, SS Germanus : Nicholas : Boniface (FH).
  2. North aisle 3, , three lights, Suffer little children (N).
South Hill, St Sampson
  1. North transept north (Manaton Chapel), , three lights, St Sampson(centre) : Archbishops Temple(left) : Benson(right), with Sower, Harvest at Bethshemeth, Ruth in predellas. (FH).
Truro, Cathedral Choir School
  1. Main hall, , two lights, SS Gabriel : Michael (FA).
Truro, Bethesda Congregational Chapel
  1. East,
Truro, Free Library and Central Technical Schools
  1. Lower stairs, , Arms of the nine Cornish boroughs having independent representatives in the County Council. (D).
  2. Upper stairs, , three lights,
    1. Badge of the Science and Art Department
    2. Arms of Lord Mount Edgcumbe
    3. Arms of Sir Charles Lemon
    4. Seal of the Lord Warden of the Duchy of Cornwall
    (D).
Truro, Methodist New Connexion Chapel
  1. East, , single light, Christ saving Peter from Sea (N).
  2. East, , single light, Miraculous draught of fishes (N).
  3. [unknown location], , two lights, Patience : Faith (FA).
Tuckingmill, All Saints
  1. South aisle 1 (behind organ), , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs) set in decorative borders (D).
  2. South aisle 2, , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs, central roundel “ihs”) set in decorative borders (D).
  3. South aisle 3, , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs) set in decorative borders (D).
  4. South aisle 4, , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs) set in decorative borders (D).
  5. South aisle 5, , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs) set in decorative borders (D).
  6. West 1, , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs, central roundel alpha and omega) set in decorative borders (D).
  7. West 2, , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs, central roundel alpha and omega) set in decorative borders (D).
  8. Nave north 4, , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs) set in decorative borders (D).
  9. Nave north 3, , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs) set in decorative borders (D).
  10. Nave north 2, , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs, top roundel “trinity”) set in decorative borders (D).
  11. Nave north 1, , single light, “Ornamental” Three decorative roundels (mainly floral motifs) set in decorative borders (D).
  12. Chancel north, , single light, Censing Angel offering prayers of all Saints before the Throne (Revelation 8:3). (FA).
Tywardreath, St Andrew
  1. Tower west, , three lights, Bread of Life : Good Shepherd : I am the Way (N).
Upton Cross, St Paul
  1. Chancel apse east, , single light, Christ - alpha and omega (FH).
  2. Chancel apse south 1, , single light, St Peter (FH).
  3. Chancel apse south 2, , single light, Roundels of Tudor rose and Trinity set in tinted glass (D).
  4. Chancel apse north 1, , single light, St Paul (FH).
Warleggan, St Bartholomew
  1. Chancel east, , three lights, Crucifixion (N).

The principal subject of each window, where known, is classified as one of the following:

  1. D: decorative: no human representation, for example a geometrical pattern, grisaille or armorial.
  2. FA: figurative allegorical, a static human figure with no historical basis, for example Faith, Hope, Charity or an angel.
  3. FH: figurative historical, a static human figure with a historical basis, for example Christ, a saint, prophet or evangelist.
  4. N: narrative, a (usually biblical) scene such as a parable or an episode from Christ’s life.

Appendix 2. Additional work by Fouracre in Cornwall: .

In addition to the installation of new stained-glass windows, Fouracre & Watson were responsible for the repair and restoration of windows in a number of Cornish churches. In some cases, older tracery was repaired or restored above newer main lights. The dates given are for original insertion of the window.

Cotehele, Cotehele House Chapel
  1. Chancel east, 16th century, three lights, Crucifixion with BVM and St John the Evangelist, with five angels catching sacred blood, above three armorials (Tremaine : Hulland : Durford)
Gulval, St Gulval
  1. Chancel east, , two lights,
    1. Left-hand light: Christ and the woman with the issue of blood, illustrating Faith: And he said unto her, Daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace (Mark 5:34).
    2. Right-hand light: Good Samaritan, illustrating Charity.
  2. North aisle west, , four lights, Moses : Joshua : David : Solomon
  3. North aisle 2, , three lights, Paul’s conversion of the road to Damascus above Paul and the serpent and fire
  4. North aisle 1, , two lights, Christ sending forth Disciples , Matthew 28,19 : Peter and John Healing a cripple , Acts 3,3-6
  5. North transept north, , four lights, Isaiah : Jeremiah : Malachi : Zecharia
St Kew, St James the Great
  1. South Chapel east, 15th century, three lights, Part of Jesse tree set in plain glass in main lights. Sacred monograms, saint with staff, figure in tabard
  2. North Chapel east, , four lights, Eight scenes from Holy Week, with donor panels and small nativity scene.
St Neot, St Anietus
  1. North aisle west, 16th century, four lights, 12 scenes from the life of St George.
St Teath, St Teath Virgin
  1. Chancel east, 15/16th century
  2. South aisle 1, 15/16th century, Plain glass
  3. South aisle 2, 15/16th century, Plain glass
  4. North aisle 1, 15/16th century, Plain glass
Truro, Cathedral Church of St Mary
  1. St Mary’s aisle 1, , two lights, Deposition : Entombment
  2. St Mary’s aisle 2, , two lights, Angel and two soldiers at empty tomb : Ascension
  3. St Mary’s aisle 3, , two lights, Supper at Bethany: Visitation of the sick
  4. St Mary’s aisle 4, , two lights, Raising of Lazarus : Good Samaritan
  5. St Mary’s aisle 5, , two lights, Suffer little children : Christ’s appearance to Mary Magdalene and John
  6. St Mary’s aisle 6, , two lights, Pharisee and the Publican : Entry into Jeruslam
  7. St Mary’s aisle 7 left, , two lights, Tracery and right canopy - medieval fragments, including male figure. God the Father (Alpha and Omega) above Mary and John the the foot of the Cross.
  8. St Mary’s aisle 7 right, , two lights, Tracery and right canopy - medieval fragments, including male figure. St John the Evangelist above female saint with boy playing lyre (probably Medieval Annunciation).
  9. St Mary’s aisle 10, , two lights, Christ preaching above sower and reaper
  10. St Mary’s aisle 12, Medieval, two lights, Tracery - medieval fragments
Truro, St Mary
  1. South aisle east, , five lights, Diaper pattern with cross ribbons and inscriptions. In the centre of the five lights are the emblems of the Crucifixion and the sufferings of our Lord.

In common with most 19th century glass studios, Fouracre also received commissions for painting decorations to the interior of several religious buildings.

St Austell, United Methodist Free Church
. Decoration of organ pipes.166
Menheniot, St Lalluwy
. Decoration of organ case.167
Boconnoc
. Decoration of pipes for the new organ.168
Gulval, St Gulval
. Decoration of Chancel and organ pipes.169
Draynes, St Agatha
. Decoration of panels of altar table.170
St Neot, St Anietus
. Decoration of eastern walls and choir stalls.171
Torpoint, St James
. Decoration of Chancel.172
St Austell, Holy Trinity
. Painting of roof after restoration and east wall above reredos.173
Porthleven, St Bartholomew
. Decorative work after restoration.174
Penzance, Chapel Street Wesleyan Chapel
. Entire interior decoration.177

References

  1. Naylor G, Fouracre & Son Stained Glass Manufacturers of Plymouth. Old Plymouth Society, ..
  2. Fouracre & Watson made two three-light windows for St John’s Church, Toorak, Melbourne. The dedicatee was Mr Allan Spowers, one of the original trustees of the church, who died in London on , Globe p 7. The donors were friends of his in England and the windows were inserted in , The Australasian, p 467.
  3. Leonard Pownall’s windows included Falmouth All Saints chancel east and north transept north, Budock tower west and St Merryn north aisle 1.
  4. Besides his windows at St Michael Caerhays and Quethiock, Revd Willimott also made windows for, among others, Old Kea and Gorran.
  5. Lostwithiel north aisle east and north aisle 1, .
  6. Madron, south aisle 2, signed Marquis of Paris.
  7. MG Swift, The windows of Truro Cathedral.
  8. Horwood windows were installed at St George Truro, Mithian and Little Petherick among others.
  9. MG Swift, listings of all Anglican, non-Anglican and secular stained glass in Cornwall.
  10. Royal Cornwall Gazette p 6 insertion of fifth window at St Austell (Vestry west: census memorial window). Royal Cornwall Gazette p 8. Appointment of JT Fouracre as secretary of the Society of Western Artists.
  11. Royal Cornwall Gazette p 5, Western Morning News p 4, Royal Cornwall Gazette p 2, Royal Cornwall Gazette p 8. They also won a Bronze award at the previous year’s exhibition for wall decoration Royal Cornwall Gazette p 5.
  12. Jubilee Report of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society , pp 22, 25, 38. The exhibition was open to public view from .
  13. Cornish Telegraph p 8.
  14. Minutes of Truro Cathedral Executive Committee, TCM/435, ‘Instruction to Mr Pearson to prepare specification of the work required to be done about the windows, and that these be submitted to Mr Jackson of London and Messrs Fouracre of Plymouth with a view to getting estimates.’
  15. Waters W, Carew-Cox A, Damozels and Deities; Pre-Raphaelite Stained Glass , p 387. Seraphim Press, . The Landrake design and the St Mabyn North aisle 3 designs were by JW Brown of James Powell of Whitefriars, freelancing to Fouracre & Watson.
  16. External inspection only, but confirmed by the lead-lines. St Mary’s is now converted into residences.
  17. J Polsue, A Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, vol Ⅱ p 29. William Lake, Truro, . Revd Dr Treffry of Place House was vicar .
  18. There is a masonic window (now in the kitchen) in the Looe Guildhall sequence of .
  19. Royal Cornwall Gazette p 6.
  20. MG Swift, The windows of Truro Cathedral.
    MG Swift and J Stewart-Smith, The stained glass windows of St Carantoc, Cornwall.
  21. Church in the West, .
  22. The later years of the Fouracre firm are covered in detail in Naylor G, op. cit., pp 45–63.
  23. The only exception was the window in Launceston Guildhall.
  24. MG Swift, Stained glass war memorials in Cornwall.
  25. P Beacham and N Pevsner, Buildings of England—Cornwall, p 546. London .
  26. MG Swift and J Stewart-Smith, ‘A Victorian Vision Rediscovered’, Journal of the Royal Institute of Cornwall, , pp 25–41, and reprinted.
  27. R Perry, H Harradence, Silvanus Trevail: Cornish Architect and Entrepreneur, Francis Boutle, London, 2008.
  28. In subject matter this mirrors the Great East window at Truro cathedral.
  29. Quoted from a guide prepared by St Martin’s Lodge which is based on notes by WD Snell together with Worshipful Brother AH Philip.
  30. Care for the aged Brother; relief of the widow and fatherless boy; St Martin dividing his cloak, work of the Royal Masonic Institute for Girls.
  31. One of these remains in North aisle 5.
  32. The Chancel east window in Godolphin church is now inaccessible as the church is now a private residence.
  33. MG Swift, the TRUROSEE listing of all stained glass in the Anglican churches of Cornwall. There are similar listings of non-Anglican and secular stained glass in Cornwall.
  34. Clayton & Bell; Lavers, Barraud & Westlake; Heaton, Butler & Bayne; John Hardman were the main first-division studios supplying windows in Cornwall from onwards.
  35. The same pattern can be seen in the large Victorian urban centres. In Leeds, alongside the major studios, several local firms emerged from onwards, notably Powell Bros., Kayll & Reed, and Chas Steele. All had vanished by the 1920s. See Susan Wrathmell Leeds (Pevsner Architectural Guides: City guides), London, : much of the stained-glass entries written by Michael G Swift.
  36. St Martin, Liskeard after restoration in had ten windows inserted, all by Clayton & Bell.
  37. MG Swift and J Stewart-Smith, The stained glass windows of St Carantoc, Cornwall.
  38. The Hellyer memorial windows at St Mary’s, Brixham inserted by Fouracre & Son in , and show a remarkable retention of vigour, colour and ambition compared with the firm’s products in Cornwall.
  1. West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser p 11 (supplement), Royal Cornwall Gazette p 5.
  2. Royal Cornwall Gazette p 7.
  3. Royal Cornwall Gazette p 6.
  4. Cornishman p 4.
  5. Western Morning News p 3, Royal Cornwall Gazette p 3.
  6. Royal Cornwall Gazette p 6, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser p 3.
  7. Royal Cornwall Gazette p 7.
  8. Royal Cornwall Gazette p 6, Royal Cornwall Gazette p 5, Truro Diocesan Kalendar p 170 (). Heard & Sons, Truro.
  9. Royal Cornwall Gazette p 6,
  1. Cornish Telegraph p 6 – total cost £450.
    1. The Welcome arch on Boscawen Bridge, with ‘Bacchante’ on the reverse.
    2. The Royal arch at the top of Lemon Street, with ‘Commerce’ on the reverse.
    3. The Cornish arch on River Street with ‘British tin and copper’.
    4. The Moorish-style Peoples’ Welcome arch at the top of Ferris town near the station.
    5. The Masonic arch at the bottom of Lemon Street with ‘Hail, Grand Master’.
    6. The Gothic arch at the entrance to the cathedral enclosure (not in Perry and Harradence).
    There are drawings of some of the arches in the Illustrated London News p 18 and the Graphic p 6.
  2. Illustrated London News p 19.
  3. Perry R, Harradence H, op. cit., p 75.
  4. Naylor G, op. cit., p 18.
  5. The Armada window at Looe does not contain detailed face painting, but many of the other windows in the Guildhall do show similar characteristics to the Ship Inn figures.
  6. Photographs in the archive of St Austell Brewery show that originally this room had a single-light window, and the present three-light window was created by the Brewery to hold the Armada window.
  7. Naylor, op. cit., pp 13–23.
  8. Western Morning News p 3.
  9. Naylor, op. cit., p 18.
  10. Naylor, op. cit., p 19, cites the collaboration between Fouracre and the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe over the design of the Plymouth Guildhall windows.
  11. Naylor, op. cit., pp 19–20. This is the only surviving example of the Plymouth Guildhall window designs, all of which were lost in the Plymouth Blitz.
  12. Naylor, op. cit., p 36.
  13. Morris & Co inserted a five-light window in St Eustachius, Tavistock, North aisle east, about 15 miles from the Fouracre studio in Plymouth, in . Tavistock Gazette p 5, Western Morning News p 4, Tavistock Gazette p 5, only a short distance from the Congregational Church in which Fouracre & Watson inserted three windows a few months later Tavistock Gazette p 5.